(i) Agricultural products: Wheat
(ii) Manufactured goods: Automobiles

(i) Economic growth: International trade can stimulate economic growth by providing access to larger markets and increasing opportunities for businesses.
(ii) Foreign exchange earnings: Developing countries can earn foreign currency through exports, which can be used to import essential goods and services.
(iii) Technology transfer: International trade can facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from developed countries to developing countries, helping to improve productivity and competitiveness.
(iv) Diversification: Engaging in international trade allows developing countries to diversify their economies by expanding beyond their domestic markets and relying on a wider range of industries.

(i) Limited infrastructure: Inadequate transportation, communication, and energy infrastructure can hinder the efficient movement of goods and services.
(ii) Trade barriers: Tariffs, quotas, and other trade barriers imposed by other countries can restrict market access for developing countries, making it harder for them to compete.
(iii) Lack of access to finance: Limited access to affordable financing options can make it difficult for businesses in developing countries to invest in production, technology, and market development.
(iv) Political instability: Political instability and conflicts can disrupt trade flows, discourage foreign investment, and create an uncertain business environment.


(i) Proximity to raw materials: Industries often locate near sources of raw materials to minimize transportation costs and ensure a steady supply.

(ii) Access to markets: Being close to target markets reduces transportation costs and enables faster delivery of goods, giving industries a competitive advantage.

(iii) Availability of labor: Industries require a skilled and abundant labor force, so they often locate in areas with a sufficient pool of workers.

(iv) Infrastructure: Adequate infrastructure, such as transportation networks, power supply, and communication systems, is crucial for the smooth functioning of industries.

(v) Government policies: Favorable government policies, such as tax incentives, subsidies, and supportive regulations, can attract industries to specific locations.

(i) Agro-based industries: Due to the abundance of agricultural resources in Tropical African countries, many manufacturing industries are based on processing agricultural products.

(ii) Export-oriented production: Manufacturing industries in Tropical African countries often focus on producing goods for export markets to generate foreign exchange earnings.

(iii) Labor-intensive production: Given the availability of labor, manufacturing industries in these countries often rely on labor-intensive production processes.

(iv) Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): Manufacturing industries in Tropical African countries are predominantly composed of SMEs, which play a significant role in employment generation and economic development.

(v) Challenges in infrastructure: Tropical African countries may face challenges in terms of infrastructure, such as inadequate transportation networks and intermittent power supply, which can impact the manufacturing sector.


(i) Hamlets
(ii) Villages

(i) Food production: Rural settlements play a crucial role in agricultural production, supplying food and other agricultural products to urban areas.

(ii) Natural resource supply: Many essential resources, such as water, timber, minerals, and energy sources, are often sourced from rural areas and support urban development.

(iii) Labor force: Rural areas provide a significant portion of the labor force for urban industries and services. People often migrate from rural to urban areas in search of better job opportunities.

(iv) Market for goods: Urban settlements rely on rural areas as a market for their products, such as manufactured goods and services. Urban industries often depend on the purchasing power of rural consumers.

(i) Availability of resources: Settlements tend to develop in areas with access to essential resources like water, fertile land, and energy sources.

(ii) Transportation and connectivity: Proximity to transportation networks, such as roads, railways, and waterways, facilitates the movement of people, goods, and services, encouraging settlement growth.

(iii) Economic opportunities: The presence of job opportunities, industries, and services in an area attracts people and promotes settlement growth.

(iv) Government policies and investments: Supportive government policies, investments in infrastructure, and development initiatives can encourage settlement growth in specific areas.

(v) Social and cultural factors: Factors like historical significance, cultural heritage, and social amenities can attract people to settle in a particular area.




(i) Cultural Diversity: Nigeria is rich in cultural diversity with numerous ethnic groups, each having its own traditions, festivals, and customs. This cultural wealth attracts tourists interested in experiencing the vibrant and diverse cultural heritage of the country.

(ii) Natural Attractions: Nigeria boasts diverse and picturesque landscapes, including national parks, waterfalls, mountains, and beaches. Tourists are drawn to the natural beauty of places like the Aso Rock, Zuma Rock, Erin Ijesha Waterfall, and the Niger Delta region.

(iii) Historical and Architectural Sites: Nigeria has historical sites and architectural landmarks that appeal to history enthusiasts and tourists. Notable examples include the Ogbunike Caves, Sukur Cultural Landscape (a UNESCO World Heritage Site), and ancient cities like Kano and Benin City.

(iv) Wildlife and Safari Tours: The country is home to various wildlife reserves and parks, o



(i) Strain on resources: With a rapidly growing population, there is increased pressure on resources such as food, water, housing, and healthcare, which can lead to scarcity and inadequate access for many individuals.

(ii) Unemployment: The rapid population growth can outpace job creation, resulting in high unemployment rates, especially among the youth. This can lead to social and economic instability.

(iii) Overcrowding: Rapid population growth can lead to overcrowding in urban areas, putting a strain on infrastructure, public services, and living conditions.

(iv) Environmental degradation: The increased demand for resources and infrastructure development can lead to deforestation, pollution, and the depletion of natural resources, impacting the environment and ecosystems.

(v) Social challenges: Rapid population growth can contribute to social challenges such as increased crime rates, inadequate access to education and healthcare, and social inequality.

(i) Geographic factors: The Niger Delta region consists of swampy terrain and mangrove forests, making it less suitable for large-scale agriculture and settlement.

(ii) Environmental challenges: The region is prone to flooding, erosion, and other environmental hazards, which can make it less attractive for settlement.

(iii) Resource exploitation: The Niger Delta region is rich in oil and gas reserves, and the extraction activities have led to environmental degradation and displacement of local communities, discouraging settlement.

(iv) Insecurity: The region has experienced conflicts and insecurity related to oil-related activities, which can discourage people from settling in the area.

(v) Limited infrastructure: The region has faced challenges in terms of infrastructure development, including transportation networks, healthcare facilities, and educational institutions, which can hinder population growth.




(i) Grassland: The Savanna vegetation in Nigeria is predominantly made up of grasses. These grasses are adapted to the dry and hot conditions of the region.

(ii) Scattered trees: The Savanna is characterized by scattered trees, which are usually short and widely spaced. These trees provide shade and shelter for animals.

(iii) Drought resistance: The Savanna vegetation has adapted to the dry climate of Nigeria by having deep root systems and the ability to tolerate drought conditions.

(iv) Seasonal changes: The Savanna experiences distinct wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, the vegetation becomes lush and green, while during the dry season, the grasses become brown and dormant.

(i) Biodiversity: The Savanna supports a diverse range of plant and animal species. It provides habitats for various wildlife, including elephants, lions, giraffes, and antelopes, contributing to the country’s rich biodiversity.

(ii) Livelihoods: The Savanna vegetation plays a crucial role in supporting the livelihoods of many Nigerians. It provides grazing land for livestock, which is an important source of income for pastoral communities.

(iii) Agriculture: The Savanna is also used for agricultural purposes. Farmers cultivate crops such as millet, sorghum, and groundnuts in the Savanna region, contributing to food production and economic development.


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