(i) Hydraulic Action
(ii) Abrasion
(iii) Attrition

(i) Wider and Deeper Channels: As the river progresses downstream, it tends to have a wider and deeper channel due to the accumulation of water from tributaries and increased discharge.

(ii) Slower Flow Velocity: The water flow in the lower course is generally slower compared to the upper and middle courses. This is because the gradient decreases, and there is a greater volume of water.

(iii) Increased Sediment Deposition: The lower course experiences higher levels of sediment deposition as the river’s energy decreases. This leads to the formation of features such as riverbanks, floodplains, and deltas.

(iv) Development of Meanders and Oxbow Lakes: The river in the lower course often forms meanders (bends) due to lateral erosion. Over time, these meanders may migrate, and cutoffs can form oxbow lakes as the river takes a shorter, straighter path.

(i) Coriolis Effect: The rotation of the Earth causes moving air and water to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This effect influences global wind patterns, ocean currents, and the direction of moving objects on Earth.

(ii) Day-Night Cycle: The rotation of the Earth on its axis results in the alternation of day and night. Different parts of the Earth’s surface receive varying amounts of sunlight at different times, leading to the cyclical pattern of day and night. This rotation also influences temperature variations across the globe.

Mass wasting, also known as slope failure or mass movement, refers to the downhill movement of rock, soil, and debris under the influence of gravity. It can occur on both gentle and steep slopes and is often triggered by various factors that weaken the stability of the slope.

(i) Slope Angle: Steep slopes are more susceptible to mass wasting because the force of gravity acting on the material is stronger, making it easier for the material to overcome the resisting forces that keep it in place.

(ii) Lithology (Rock and Soil Type): The type and composition of rocks and soil play a crucial role in mass wasting. Loose, unconsolidated materials are more prone to movement than cohesive, well-consolidated rocks.

(iii) Water Content: The presence of water significantly influences mass wasting. Saturation of the soil or rock with water reduces internal friction and cohesion, making it more prone to movement. This is particularly evident in areas with heavy rainfall, snowmelt, or human activities like irrigation.

(iv) Vegetation Cover: The absence or removal of vegetation can increase the risk of mass wasting. Plant roots help bind soil particles together, providing stability to the slope. When vegetation is removed through deforestation or other activities, the slope becomes more susceptible to erosion.

(i) Property Damage and Loss: Mass wasting events can result in the destruction of buildings, infrastructure, and agricultural land located on or near the affected slopes. This can lead to significant economic losses and displacement of communities.

(ii) Loss of Life: Mass wasting events pose a direct threat to human life, especially in populated areas. Landslides and other forms of mass wasting can bury homes, roads, and entire communities, leading to fatalities and injuries.
(i) The Sahara Desert in Africa
(ii) The Arabian Desert in the Middle East
(iii) The Mojave Desert in North America.

(i) High Temperatures: Hot deserts are characterized by extremely high daytime temperatures, often exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) or more. The temperature variation between day and night can also be substantial.

(ii) Low Precipitation: Hot deserts typically receive very little rainfall, making them arid environments. The scarcity of water is a defining feature, and some hot deserts may go for long periods without any significant precipitation.

(iii) Wide Temperature Variation: While daytime temperatures in hot deserts are very high, nighttime temperatures can drop significantly. The lack of cloud cover allows for rapid heat loss during the night, resulting in a wide temperature variation between day and night.

(i) Water Storage: Many desert plants have adapted to store water efficiently to survive in arid conditions. Cacti, for example, have specialized tissues for water storage in their stems, allowing them to endure long periods without rainfall.

(ii) Reduced Leaf Surface: To minimize water loss through transpiration, desert plants often have reduced leaf surface areas or modified leaves. Some plants have small, thick, or waxy leaves that help in conserving water by reducing evaporation.

(iii) Deep Root Systems: Desert plants often have deep root systems that allow them to access water sources deep underground. This adaptation helps them tap into groundwater reserves and withstand the scarcity of surface water in hot desert environments.
(i) Rivers
(ii) Lakes
(iv) Glaciers
(v) Rainwater

(i) Pollution:
Industrial, agricultural, and urban activities release pollutants into water bodies, affecting water quality and making it unsuitable for consumption or ecosystem health.

(ii) Over-extraction of Groundwater:
Excessive pumping of groundwater for agriculture, industry, and domestic use has led to depletion of aquifers and the sinking of water tables.

(iii) Deforestation:
Removal of forests reduces the ability of the land to retain water, leading to increased runoff, soil erosion, and altered hydrological cycles.

(iv) Climate Change:
Changes in climate patterns, such as altered precipitation and increased temperatures, can affect the availability and distribution of water resources.

(v) Water Waste:
Inefficient water use practices, such as leaky infrastructure, over-irrigation, and excessive water consumption, contribute to water scarcity and reduce the overall efficiency of water resources


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