(i)Revelation; The Prophet’s(sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sayings and actions were primarily based on revelation from Allah and, as such, must be considered a fundamental source of guidance second only to the Qur’an. Allah in the Qur’an said concerning the Prophet.

(ii)Tafseer; The preservation of the Qur’an was not restricted to protecting its wording from change. Were that the case, its meanings could be manipulated according to human desires, while maintaining its wording. However, Allah also protected its essential meanings from change by entrusting the explanation of the meanings of the Qur’an to the prophet himself.

(iii)Laws; One of the primary duties of the prophet was to judge between people in their disputes. Since his judgements were all based on revelation, as stated above, they must be considered a primary source of principles by which judgements are carried out in an Islamic state.

(i)The Hadith is a collection of sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad, while the Quran is the holy book of Islam.
(ii)The Hadith provides further guidance and explanations for the teachings of the Quran.

(iii)They complement each other in understanding and practicing Islam.

Hajj is a sacred pilgrimage that is required of every Muslim at least once in their lifetime. In other words it is one of the fifth pillars of Islam. Each year, millions of Muslims from across the world travel to and perform Hajj in Makkah.

(i)Entering ihram
(ii) Standing in ‘Arafah
(iii)Staying overnight in Mina

(i)Remembrance of Allah, especially on the Day of Arafat
(ii)Fasting on the Day of Arafat
(iii)Sincere repentance in Zulhijjah and on the Day of Arafat

Abdullah bn Fodio, also known as Shaykh Usman dan Fodio, was a prominent Islamic scholar, reformer, and leader in West Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries. Hewas born in 1754 in Gobir, present-day Nigeria, and belonged to the Fulani ethnic group. He received a comprehensive Islamic education from an early age and became well-versed in various Islamic sciences, including theology, jurisprudence, and philosophy.

(i) Islamic Scholarship: Abdullahi ibn Fodio was known for his deep knowledge of Islamic sciences.
(ii) Islamic Reformation: Abdullahi ibn Fodio aimed to reform the practice of Islam in West Africa, focusing on eliminating what he considered to be deviations and heresies.
(iii) Jihad and Political Leadership: With a vision to establish an Islamic state based on justice and equity, Abdullahi ibn Fodio led a successful jihad (holy war) against the Hausa rulers in northern Nigeria.


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