Adah Ofili is the protagonist of Buchi Emecheta’s novel “Second Class Citizen.” She is a Nigerian woman who faces numerous challenges and struggles as she navigates through life in both Nigeria and the United Kingdom. Adah’s character is portrayed as resilient, determined, and ambitious despite the cultural and societal limitations placed upon her.

In the novel, Adah is depicted as a strong-willed and intelligent woman who desires an education and a better life for herself. However, she faces numerous obstacles that impede her progress. Adah comes from a patriarchal society where women are expected to conform to traditional gender roles and are often denied educational opportunities. Despite this, she persists in her pursuit of knowledge and manages to attend school against her father’s wishes.

When Adah moves to the UK with her husband, Francis, her role as a second-class citizen becomes even more pronounced. She faces racial discrimination, poverty, and the challenges of raising a family while trying to secure a stable job. Adah’s experiences in the UK highlight the issues faced by immigrants, particularly those from non-Western countries, as they confront cultural shock and prejudice.

Throughout the novel, Adah’s role is that of a survivor. She endures multiple hardships, including an abusive marriage, financial struggles, and the loss of her children. Adah’s determination to improve her circumstances and provide a better life for her children drives her actions. She takes on various jobs, including working as a cleaner and selling wigs, to support her family and pursue her dreams.

Adah’s character and role in the novel symbolize the experiences of many women who find themselves trapped in oppressive cultural and societal structures. She becomes a symbol of resilience and the will to overcome adversity in the face of societal expectations, racial discrimination, and gender inequality.


The theme of cultural shock is indeed central in Buchi Emecheta’s “Second Class Citizen.” Adah Ofili’s journey from Nigeria to London exposes her to a stark contrast of cultures and ways of life, which significantly impacts her sense of identity, relationships, and overall experiences.

When Adah first arrives in London, she is confronted with a vastly different society from what she has known in Nigeria. She experiences a profound cultural shock as she faces challenges in adapting to the Western way of life. Adah grapples with unfamiliar customs, language barriers, and the nuances of a new social structure. She encounters racism and prejudice, which further compounds her struggle to find acceptance and establish herself in her new environment.

The novel explores how cultural shock affects Adah’s relationships. She becomes disconnected from her Nigerian roots while living in London, as she attempts to assimilate into a foreign culture. Adah finds herself torn between her desire to embrace the opportunities and freedom offered in the West and her longing for the familiarity and traditions of her homeland. This internal conflict causes strain in her marriage and shapes her interactions with her children and the wider Nigerian community in London.

Emecheta portrays cultural shock as a catalyst for personal growth and self-discovery. Adah’s experiences in London force her to question her own identity and confront the limitations placed upon her as a Nigerian woman. As she becomes more aware of the disparities between her cultural background and the expectations of her new society, Adah begins to challenge traditional gender roles and societal norms. She becomes determined to pursue her dreams, including her aspiration to become a writer, despite the cultural barriers she faces.

Through Adah’s journey, Emecheta highlights the difficulties and complexities faced by immigrants and individuals caught between two cultures. The theme of cultural shock underscores the broader issues of identity, assimilation, and the clash of traditions that arise when individuals are uprooted from their familiar environment and thrust into a foreign one.

In conclusion, the theme of cultural shock is intricately woven into the narrative of “Second Class Citizen,” capturing Adah Ofili’s transformative journey as she grapples with the clash of cultures, confronts prejudice, and seeks to establish her own identity in a new and challenging environment.


In the novel “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” by Alex Agyei-Agyiri the theme of xenophobia is explored through the perspective of the main character Kwaku. Set in Ghana during the early 1960s the story sheds light on the prevalent issue of xenophobia and its consequences on individuals and society.

Xenophobia defined as the fear or hatred of foreigners or people from different cultures is conveyed primarily through the discrimination faced by Kwaku a young man from a neighboring country. As a Nigerian living in Ghana Kwaku becomes a victim of prejudice and hostility from the locals. He is often ridiculed ostracized and subjected to various forms of mistreatment solely because of his nationality.

Kwaku’s experience with xenophobia is seen in his struggle to find employment. Despite his qualifications and skills he faces constant rejection solely because he is Nigerian. This discrimination leaves Kwaku feeling isolated and marginalized making it difficult for him to find a sense of belonging within the Ghanaian society. The author effectively portrays the frustration and despair experienced by Kwaku highlighting the damaging impact that xenophobia can have on an individual’s self-worth and aspirations.

Moreover the theme of xenophobia extends beyond Kwaku’s personal experiences to reflect the broader issue of prejudice within the society. The novel portrays how xenophobia can breed division tension and animosity between different ethnic groups. The cultural differences between Ghanaians and Nigerians are used as a catalyst for discrimination perpetuating stereotypes and misconceptions. These negative attitudes hinder social cohesion and prevent the formation of meaningful relationships between individuals from different backgrounds.

However amidst the portrayal of xenophobia the author also highlights the transformative power of empathy and understanding. Through characters like Akosua and Nana Kofi who challenge the prevailing prejudices the novel showcases the potential for positive change in society. Their compassion and acceptance of Kwaku demonstrate that overcoming xenophobia requires a shift in mindset and an openness to embracing diversity.

Overall “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” sheds light on the destructive impact of xenophobia within society. By exploring the theme through the experiences of Kwaku and other characters the novel raises awareness about the importance of tolerance acceptance and cultural understanding. It serves as a powerful reminder that by confronting our biases and embracing diversity we can build a more inclusive and harmonious world free from the shadows of xenophobia.


Throughout the story, both Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie make several attempts to reconcile with the villagers and bridge the gap created by xenophobia. Despite facing adversity, they persistently seek acceptance and understanding.

Mama Orojo’s attempts at reconciliation are driven by her desire to live harmoniously with the villagers. She makes an effort to engage with her neighbors, participating in communal activities and showing kindness to those around her. She tries to break down the stereotypes associated with Nigerians by demonstrating her compassion, generosity, and willingness to contribute positively to the community.

Nii Tackie, on the other hand, strives to assimilate into the local culture and win the respect of his peers. He tries to make friends with the village children, involving himself in their games and activities. Despite initial rejection, Nic Jackie remains resilient and continues his attempts to connect with the other children. He demonstrates his eagerness to learn and adapt by embracing Ghanaian traditions, which eventually helps break down some barriers.

In response to their efforts, a few individuals in the village start to recognize Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie’s genuine intentions and gradually warm up to them. These individuals become the catalysts for change, influencing others to reevaluate their prejudiced beliefs.

As the story progresses, the tensions begin to dissipate, and a gradual reconciliation takes place. The villagers start acknowledging Mama Orojo’s contributions to the community, such as her agricultural expertise and her role in mediating conflicts. They realize that their initial assumptions about her were unfounded.

Similarly, Nii Tackie’s persistence and genuine efforts to befriend the village children pay off. Some of the children begin to accept him, recognizing that cultural differences should not hinder friendship. By embracing the local traditions and learning from each other, both the Nigerian immigrants and the villagers start to find common ground and build relationships based on understanding and acceptance.

In conclusion, “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” highlights the theme of xenophobia through the experiences of Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie. The story showcases the damaging effects of xenophobia on individuals and communities while emphasizing the importance of reconciliation and acceptance. Mama Orojo and Nii Tackie’s persistent attempts to bridge the divide ultimately lead to a gradual reconciliation between the Nigerian immigrants and the villagers, challenging the xenophobic attitudes prevalent in the community.



Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man” tells the story of a nameless protagonist referred to as the Narrator who grapples with his identity and place in a racially divided society. The quote “To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running serves as both a literal command given to the Narrator by his white employer and a metaphorical representation of the societal forces that compel him to constantly move and adapt in order to survive.

From the beginning of the novel the Narrator finds himself constantly on the move both physically and metaphorically. He is initially a student at a prestigious black college but is forced to leave after an incident with a white trustee. This event sets in motion a series of encounters and experiences that push the Narrator further into invisibility and displacement.

Throughout the narrative the Narrator is constantly chasing after approval and recognition from the white establishment represented by figures like Dr. Bledsoe and the Brotherhood. He engages in a variety of roles and adopts different identities in an attempt to fit into the expectations of those in power and secure a sense of belonging. However his efforts are always met with disappointment and disillusionment.

The quote highlights the dehumanizing nature of racism reducing the Narrator to a mere object to be controlled and manipulated. It signifies the ongoing devaluation of black lives and the constant demands placed upon black individuals to perform according to white expectations. The phrase reinforces the idea that the Narrator is not seen as an individual but as a means to an end – a disposable tool to be used and discarded.

Moreover the phrase “keep this nigger boy running” also points towards the idea of the Narrator’s invisibility. By being constantly on the move the Narrator remains unseen and unheard. His true thoughts desires and ambitions are never acknowledged or fully realized by the people around him further perpetuating his invisibility within society.

In conclusion the quote “To whom it may concern: keep this nigger boy running” encapsulates the constant movement displacement and dehumanization experienced by the Narrator in Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man.” It serves as a powerful statement about the ways in which racism and societal expectations force individuals to constantly adapt and conform ultimately rendering them invisible and devoid of agency.


In Ralph Ellison’s novel “Invisible Man,” the theme of identity is central to the protagonist’s journey and serves as a powerful exploration of the African American experience. The novel examines the complexities and challenges faced by the unnamed narrator as he grapples with his individual and racial identity in a society that often renders him invisible.

One aspect of identity explored in the novel is the tension between self-perception and the way others perceive and categorize individuals. The narrator struggles with the expectations and stereotypes imposed upon him by a racist society, which often reduces him to a mere stereotype or disregards his individuality. He is constantly reminded of his supposed invisibility as a black man, reinforcing a sense of marginalization and erasure. Through his experiences, the novel underscores the importance of self-definition and resisting the dehumanizing forces that attempt to define individuals solely based on their race or social standing.

Another facet of identity examined in the novel is the notion of double consciousness. Coined by W.E.B. Du Bois, double consciousness refers to the internal conflict experienced by African Americans who must navigate their own self-perception alongside the perception of society. The protagonist grapples with this duality throughout the narrative, constantly aware of how he is seen by others and wrestling with the need to conform to societal expectations while also seeking to assert his own autonomy and individuality. This internal struggle highlights the complex nature of identity formation within a racially divided and discriminatory society.

Furthermore, Ellison explores the idea that identity is not fixed or singular but can be fluid and multifaceted. The narrator undergoes various transformations and reinventions as he moves through different environments and encounters a range of characters. From his time at the black college to his involvement with the Brotherhood, he assumes different roles and adopts different identities, each influenced by the expectations and demands of those around him. This exploration of fluid identity suggests that one’s sense of self is shaped by external factors and societal pressures, but also by personal choices and individual agency.

Ultimately, “Invisible Man” delves into the complexities of identity formation and the struggle to assert one’s individuality in a society that seeks to deny or distort it. Through the protagonist’s journey, Ellison highlights the profound impact of racism, stereotypes, and social expectations on the formation of identity. By confronting these challenges head-on, the novel calls for a reclamation of personal agency and a recognition of the richness and complexity of individual identity.


In Emily Brontë’s novel “Wuthering Heights,” the consequences of actions play a significant role in shaping the lives of the characters and driving the narrative forward. The novel explores themes of love, revenge, and the destructive nature of unchecked passion. Through various examples, Brontë portrays how the consequences of characters’ actions can have far-reaching and devastating effects.

One example of the consequences of actions is the relationship between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff. Catherine’s decision to marry Edgar Linton instead of Heathcliff leads to a series of tragic events. Heathcliff, consumed by his love for Catherine, becomes vengeful and bitter, seeking revenge on those he believes have wronged him. This ultimately leads to a cycle of violence and destruction that affects not only the main characters but also the next generation.

Another instance is Hindley Earnshaw’s mistreatment of Heathcliff. Hindley’s jealousy and resentment towards Heathcliff cause him to mistreat and degrade him, which fuels Heathcliff’s desire for revenge. As a result, Heathcliff manipulates and torments Hindley’s son, Hareton Earnshaw, perpetuating the cycle of abuse across generations. The consequences of Hindley’s actions have lasting impacts on both himself and those around him.

Additionally, the actions of Isabella Linton, Edgar’s sister, have significant consequences. Isabella, driven by infatuation and a desire to escape her unhappy marriage to Heathcliff, elopes with him. However, she soon realizes the harsh reality of his cruel and vindictive nature. Her actions lead to her own misery as she becomes trapped in an abusive relationship. She bears Heathcliff’s child, Linton, who becomes a pawn in Heathcliff’s revenge scheme, ultimately leading to Linton’s untimely death.

Overall, “Wuthering Heights” illustrates how the consequences of characters’ actions can reverberate throughout the novel, affecting not only the individuals involved but also future generations. Love, passion, and revenge drive the characters to make choices that result in devastating outcomes, showcasing the destructive power of unchecked emotions and the profound impact of actions on the lives of those involved.


The hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in Emily Brontë’s novel “Wuthering Heights” is primarily a result of their differing personalities social statuses and the tumultuous atmosphere of Wuthering Heights.

Lockwood a gentleman from London represents the outsider in this story. He is the new tenant at Thrushcross Grange a neighboring estate to Wuthering Heights and he becomes curious about his mysterious landlord Heathcliff. Lockwood is described as a reserved and proper individual accustomed to the polite society of his city life. In contrast Heathcliff is portrayed as an enigmatic and brooding figure deeply rooted in the rugged and passionate atmosphere of the Yorkshire moors.

Initially Lockwood shows a sense of curiosity and attempts to befriend Heathcliff during his visits to Wuthering Heights. However his aloof and formal manner clashes with Heathcliff’s harsh and volatile personality. The clash becomes evident during Lockwood’s first visit to the estate where he is met with a cold reception from not only Heathcliff but also the other inhabitants of Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff particularly displays an intense dislike for Lockwood as he sees him as an unwelcome intruder into his isolated world.

As the story progresses Lockwood’s attempts to communicate and understand the complex dynamics of Wuthering Heights further fuel the animosity between him and Heathcliff. Lockwood continues to show a somewhat naive and condescending attitude towards the inhabitants of the estate. Furthermore he fails to comprehend the depths of the passions resentments and emotional turmoil that define the relationships within Wuthering Heights.

Heathcliff who is deeply consumed by his own dark and vengeful thoughts does not appreciate Lockwood’s attempts at interference or understanding his motivations. His resentment towards the outside world which has ostracized him and treated him as an outcast due to his social origins is projected onto Lockwood. Heathcliff’s own volatile disposition and bitter behavior only heighten the tension and hostility between the two characters.

Overall the hostility between Heathcliff and Lockwood in “Wuthering Heights” is a result of their contrasting personalities and the clash between the refined outsider mentality of Lockwood and the passionate and brooding nature of Heathcliff. Their interactions serve as a reflection of the larger themes of isolation revenge and societal prejudice that are integral to the novel.


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