ANSWER FIVE QUESTIONS IN ALL, TWO FROM SECTION A AND THREE FROM SECTION B
A state can be defined as a politically organized community living within defined borders, possessing sovereignty over its territory, and exercising authority over its population. It is a central political unit that maintains law and order, regulates societal affairs, and represents its citizens in international relations.
(i) Territory: A state has a defined geographical area or territory that is internationally recognized. It includes land, water bodies, and airspace within its boundaries. The territory provides the state with a physical space over which it exercises its authority and implements laws.
(ii) Population: A state consists of a permanent population living within its territory. The population may include citizens, residents, and other individuals subject to the state’s jurisdiction. The population forms the basis of the state’s political, economic, and social structure.
(iii) Sovereignty: Sovereignty refers to the supreme authority and independence of a state within its territorial boundaries. A sovereign state has the power to make and enforce laws, establish institutions, maintain order, and conduct foreign relations without interference from external entities. It is recognized as the highest governing authority within its territory.
(iv) Government: A state has a system of government that exercises political authority over its population and administers public affairs. The government consists of institutions, such as the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, responsible for making and implementing laws, maintaining order, and providing public services. The government represents the state domestically and internationally.
(v) Recognition: Recognition is an important attribute of a state. It involves the acknowledgment of a state’s sovereignty and legitimacy by other states and international organizations. Recognition enables a state to participate in diplomatic relations, engage in international treaties and agreements, and seek membership in international organizations like the United Nations. It establishes the state’s status in the international community.
(i) Party Image and Branding: The image and branding of a political party significantly impact its success. A party’s reputation, values, and messaging can attract or repel voters. A strong and relatable party brand that resonates with the electorate can enhance electoral prospects.
(ii) Leadership: The quality and appeal of a party’s leadership are critical factors. Charismatic leaders who are seen as competent, trustworthy, and capable of addressing voters’ concerns often attract more support. Leadership also encompasses the ability to articulate a clear vision and inspire confidence among party members and the electorate.
(iii) Policy Positions: The positions a political party takes on various issues and its policy platform play a crucial role in attracting voters. Parties that align with the priorities and values of the electorate and offer practical solutions to societal challenges tend to fare better. A well-defined and coherent policy agenda can help build trust and credibility with voters.
(iv) Economic Performance: The state of the economy can significantly impact electoral outcomes. Voters often consider their personal financial well-being and overall economic conditions when casting their votes. Parties that can demonstrate a strong track record or credible plans for economic growth, job creation, and income distribution are more likely to be successful.
(v) Voter Demographics and Coalitions: Understanding the demographics and interests of the electorate is vital. Parties that can effectively appeal to specific voter groups, such as young people, women, ethnic minorities, or rural populations, may gain an advantage. Building broad-based coalitions with other parties or interest groups can also boost electoral prospects.
(vi) Campaign Strategy and Organization: A well-executed campaign strategy is essential for electoral success. Effective campaign messaging, targeted outreach efforts, grassroots mobilization, and a strong ground game can make a significant difference. Parties that can effectively utilize technology and data analytics to identify and engage with voters are more likely to achieve electoral success.
(i) Lobbying: Lobbying involves direct interaction with policymakers, such as government officials and legislators, to influence their decisions. Pressure groups may arrange meetings, provide research and information, and offer expertise on specific issues. They aim to persuade policymakers to adopt policies that align with their interests.
(ii) Public Campaigns: Pressure groups often engage in public campaigns to raise awareness and garner public support for their cause. They use various means, such as mass media, social media, rallies, protests, and public demonstrations, to mobilize public opinion and put pressure on policymakers to address their concerns.
(iii) Litigation: Some pressure groups resort to legal action to achieve their objectives. They may file lawsuits or support legal challenges that seek to change or invalidate existing laws, regulations, or government actions that they perceive as unfavorable. Litigation can be a powerful tool to influence policy outcomes through court rulings.
(iv) Grassroots Mobilization: Pressure groups often rely on grassroots mobilization to build a strong base of support. They encourage their members and sympathizers to take action by writing letters, making phone calls, or meeting with policymakers. This bottom-up approach demonstrates widespread public concern and can be an effective way to influence policymakers.
(v) Coalition Building: Pressure groups sometimes form alliances or coalitions with other like-minded organizations to amplify their influence. By uniting their efforts, pressure groups can pool resources, share expertise, and present a unified front on specific issues. Coalition building increases their collective bargaining power and enhances their chances of achieving policy changes.
(vi) Campaign Finance: Pressure groups may use financial contributions strategically to support political candidates sympathetic to their cause. By providing campaign funds or other types of financial support, pressure groups seek to gain access to policymakers and secure their support for specific policies. This technique is particularly effective in systems where campaign finance laws are relatively permissive.
(i) Recruitment and Promotion based on Merit: Ensure that civil servants are hired and promoted based on their qualifications, skills, and merit rather than their political affiliations. Establish transparent and objective selection processes that emphasize competence and professionalism.
(ii) Political Neutrality Guidelines: Develop clear guidelines and codes of conduct that explicitly state the expectations of political neutrality for civil servants. These guidelines should outline the boundaries regarding political activities, affiliations, and expressions of personal opinions to prevent biases and conflicts of interest.
(iii) Training and Professional Development: Provide comprehensive training programs that focus on political neutrality, ethics, and professionalism. These programs can enhance civil servants’ understanding of their role as impartial public servants and equip them with the necessary skills to navigate political situations objectively.
(iv) Strong Civil Service Commission or Oversight Body: Establish an independent and empowered Civil Service Commission or oversight body that is responsible for overseeing the recruitment, promotion, and disciplinary actions related to civil servants. This body should have the authority to investigate and take appropriate actions in cases of partisan behavior.
(v) Protection from Political Interference: Ensure that civil servants are protected from undue political interference. Establish mechanisms to shield civil servants from pressures to engage in partisan activities, such as creating clear reporting channels for cases of attempted interference or political coercion.
(vi) Performance Evaluation and Accountability: Implement a robust performance evaluation system that emphasizes the delivery of impartial and efficient public services. Hold civil servants accountable for their performance and professionalism while rewarding those who consistently demonstrate non-partisan behavior.
(i) Control and Authority: In military rule, the military establishment assumes complete or substantial control over the executive, legislative, and often judicial branches of government. The military leaders wield supreme authority and have the power to make and enforce decisions without civilian oversight.
(ii) Suspension of Civilian Institutions: Military rule often involves the suspension, dissolution, or subordination of civilian institutions, such as the parliament, political parties, and independent judiciary. The military takes over these institutions or severely limits their powers, diminishing checks and balances.
(iii) Limited Civil Liberties: Under military rule, civil liberties and human rights are frequently curtailed or suppressed. Basic freedoms like freedom of speech, assembly, and press may be restricted, and censorship or surveillance mechanisms are often employed to maintain control and suppress dissent.
(iv) Suppression of Opposition: Military regimes commonly employ repressive measures to suppress political opposition. This can include the arrest, detention, or even execution of political opponents, activists, journalists, and anyone perceived as a threat to the regime’s stability or authority.
(v) Centralized Decision-making: Military rule is characterized by a centralized decision-making process, with key policy and governance decisions made by the military leadership or a small group of military officials. This centralized control often results in a lack of transparency, accountability, and public participation in decision-making processes.
(vi) Emphasis on Security and Order: Military rulers prioritize national security and the maintenance of law and order. They often justify their rule by promising stability, protection against internal or external threats, and the restoration or maintenance of public order. This can lead to an increased militarization of society and a heavy reliance on security forces.
(i) Political Instability: The crisis led to a period of political instability in Nigeria. The internal power struggles within the Action Group resulted in a split within the party and the formation of factional groups. This instability weakened the political landscape and had implications for governance and decision-making processes.
(ii) Regional Polarization: The crisis exacerbated regional divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group was primarily based in the Western Region, and the crisis deepened the divide between the Western Region and other regions of the country. This regional polarization contributed to tensions and further strained the unity of Nigeria.
(iii) Weakening of Federalism: The crisis highlighted the challenges of federalism in Nigeria. The Action Group crisis had implications for the federal structure of the country, as it revealed the difficulties of managing power and maintaining a balance between the central government and regional authorities. This weakened the federal system and raised questions about its effectiveness.
(iv) Disruption of Democratic Processes: The crisis disrupted democratic processes in Nigeria. The Action Group was a major political party and a key player in the democratic system at the time. The internal conflicts and factionalism within the party undermined democratic institutions and processes, affecting the functioning of the political system.
(v) Rise of Ethnic Politics: The crisis contributed to the rise of ethnic politics in Nigeria. The Action Group crisis had elements of ethnic and regional divisions, and it heightened ethnic tensions within the country. This fueled the emergence of identity-based politics, which had lasting effects on Nigerian politics and society.
(vi) Military Intervention: The Action Group crisis played a role in setting the stage for military intervention in Nigerian politics. The political instability and regional tensions resulting from the crisis created a conducive environment for military officers to intervene in the governance of the country. This ultimately led to a series of military coups and periods of military rule in Nigeria’s subsequent history.
(i) Security: Security concerns have a significant impact on Nigeria’s foreign policy. The country faces various security challenges, including terrorism, insurgency, and regional conflicts. Nigeria’s foreign policy aims to address these security threats through regional cooperation, counterterrorism measures, and diplomatic efforts to secure support from international partners.
(ii) Economic Interests: Economic considerations play a crucial role in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy. As Africa’s largest economy, Nigeria seeks to expand its trade relations, attract foreign direct investment (FDI), and promote economic cooperation with other countries. Nigeria’s foreign policy prioritizes economic diplomacy, fostering partnerships, and exploring new markets to drive economic growth and development.
(iii) Regional Influence: Nigeria seeks to maintain and strengthen its regional influence within Africa. As a leading country in West Africa, Nigeria aims to promote stability, economic integration, and cooperation among its neighboring countries. Nigeria’s foreign policy emphasizes its role as a regional power, mediating conflicts, and supporting regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to maintain regional peace and security.
(iv) Global Diplomacy: Nigeria actively engages in global diplomacy to safeguard its national interests and promote its agenda on various global issues. It participates in international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth to advance its positions on global governance, human rights, climate change, and peacekeeping. Nigeria’s foreign policy seeks to enhance its global influence and contribute to international peace and security.
(v) Historical and Cultural Factors: Nigeria’s foreign policy is influenced by its historical experiences, colonial legacy, and cultural ties. Nigeria maintains relations with former colonial powers, such as the United Kingdom, and countries with historical and cultural connections, such as members of the Commonwealth. These factors shape Nigeria’s diplomatic approach and the nature of its engagements with different countries.
(vi) Pan-Africanism and South-South Cooperation: Nigeria’s foreign policy is influenced by its commitment to Pan-Africanism and South-South cooperation. Nigeria aims to promote unity, solidarity, and cooperation among African countries, supporting African integration and development initiatives. Nigeria actively participates in forums like the African Union and the South-South Cooperation to strengthen ties with other developing countries and advance shared interests.
(9a) Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority and constituent political units, such as states or provinces. It is based on the principle of dual sovereignty, where both the central government and the regional governments possess independent powers and responsibilities that are protected by a constitution.
(i) Enhanced Representation: The formation of new states allows for a more equitable distribution of political power. It ensures that different regions or communities within a federation have a voice in the decision-making process and can actively participate in governance. This helps to promote inclusivity and representation.
(ii) Regional Development: State creation can contribute to the development and progress of specific regions within a federation. It allows for more focused attention on local issues, leading to better allocation of resources, infrastructure development, and targeted policies tailored to address the specific needs and aspirations of the region.
(iii) Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: State creation acknowledges and accommodates the cultural and linguistic diversity present within a federation. It provides a framework for the recognition and protection of the cultural, linguistic, and historical heritage of different regions or communities, fostering a sense of identity and pride.
(iv) Administrative Efficiency: As a federation grows, the workload of the central government can become overwhelming. Creating new states helps to decentralize governance and administrative functions, allowing for more efficient and effective governance. It can also bring decision-making closer to the people, making governance more responsive to local needs and aspirations.
(v) Conflict Resolution: In some cases, the creation of states can help address long-standing conflicts and grievances within a federation. By giving greater autonomy and self-governance to specific regions, it can provide a peaceful and negotiated solution to disputes, ensuring stability, peace, and unity within the federation.
(i) Emir: The Emir, the paramount ruler, held significant executive powers. His duties included overseeing the administration, maintaining law and order, settling disputes, and enforcing the decisions of the emirate council. The Emir also acted as the chief religious and cultural leader of the community.
(ii) Waziri: The Waziri served as the prime minister or chief advisor to the Emir. Their responsibilities included assisting the Emir in governance, providing counsel, managing the administration, and overseeing the collection of taxes and revenues.
(iii) Madaki: The Madaki was a high-ranking official responsible for military affairs. They commanded the Emir’s army, ensured security within the emirate, and protected its borders. The Madaki also advised the Emir on military strategies and maintained discipline within the armed forces.
(iv) Galadima: The Galadima held the position of chief judge and was responsible for the administration of justice. They presided over courts, settled disputes, interpreted customary laws, and ensured fair and equitable judgments. The Galadima played a crucial role in maintaining law and order within the emirate.
(v) Sarkin Ruwa: The Sarkin Ruwa, meaning “King of Water,” was in charge of water resources and irrigation systems. They oversaw the maintenance of dams, canals, and water distribution networks. The Sarkin Ruwa regulated water usage, ensured equitable access to water for agricultural purposes, and resolved water-related disputes.
(vi) Dan Maishanu: The Dan Maishanu was responsible for the management of agriculture and land issues. They supervised agricultural activities, promoted farming techniques, and regulated land allocation. The Dan Maishanu also facilitated the collection of agricultural taxes and resolved conflicts related to land ownership or use.
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