(i) To control land use and prevent land degradation
(ii) To promote sustainable land use practices
(iii) To ensure equitable distribution of land resources
(iv) To protect the environment and biodiversity

(i) Providing training and education on beekeeping practices
(ii) Promoting the use of modern beekeeping technologies
(iii) Advocating for policies that support beekeeping
(iv) Providing financial support to beekeepers

(i) Reduced soil erosion and compaction
(ii) Preservation of topsoil and soil structure
(iii) Reduced environmental impact
(iv) Preservation of beneficial microorganisms in the soil

(i) Accessibility to the farm fields
(ii) Availability of water and electricity
(iii) Proximity to the market and transportation routes
(iv) The natural features of the land such as slope, soil type, and drainage


(i) Development of high-yielding crop varieties and animal breeds
(ii) Use of modern farming techniques and equipment
(iii) Improved irrigation and water management practices
(iv) Adoption of biotechnology and genetic engineering in agriculture

(i) Inadequate grazing land
(ii) Poor animal health management
(iii) Inadequate feed and water supply
(iv) High cost of inputs and low prices of animal products

(i) To optimize land use and minimize waste
(ii) To ensure efficient use of labor and resources
(iii) To improve farm safety and security
(iv) To increase productivity and profitability

(i) Windmills for pumping water
(ii) Wind turbines for generating electricity
(iii) Windbreaks for protecting crops from wind damage
(iv) Wind-powered irrigation systems



(i) Crop rotation involves the regular alternation of different crops on a piece of land to improve soil fertility and crop yields.
(ii) It involves the rotation of leguminous crops with non-leguminous crops to fix nitrogen in the soil.
(iii) It involves the rotation of crops with different rooting depths to improve soil structure and moisture retention.
(iv) It involves the rotation of crops with different nutrient requirements to avoid nutrient depletion in the soil.

(i) Commensalism is a type of ecological association where one organism benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Symbiosis, on the other hand, is a type of ecological association where two organisms live together in a close relationship.
(ii) Predation is a type of ecological association where one organism (predator) kills and eats another (prey) for food While Parasitism is a type of ecological association where one organism (parasite) benefits at the expense of the other (host).

(i) Rocks provide a natural source of minerals and nutrients to the soil.
(ii) They help to improve soil drainage and aeration.
(iii) Rocks can help to reduce soil erosion and water runoff.
(iv) They can also help to regulate soil temperature and moisture content.

(i) Irrigation helps to provide water to crops during periods of drought or low rainfall.
(ii) It helps to increase crop yields and improve crop quality.
(iii) Irrigation can help to reduce soil salinity and improve soil fertility.
(iv) It can also help to extend the growing season and increase the variety of crops that can be grown.


(i) Soil pollution refers to the contamination of soil by human activities, such as the use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, and the disposal of industrial waste and sewage.

(ii) Four methods of controlling water pollution are:
– Reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
– Treating industrial and municipal wastewater before discharge
– Implementing best management practices in agriculture and forestry
– Restoring and protecting wetlands and riparian zones

(i) Collect a soil sample from the field
(ii) Air-dry the sample and remove any debris
(iii) Grind the sample into a fine powder
(iv) Perform a chemical analysis of the sample to determine the levels of nutrients, pH, and other properties

(i) Reduces soil erosion and surface runoff
(ii) Improves soil structure and fertility
(iii) Reduces waterlogging and salinity

(i) Requires regular maintenance and cleaning
(ii) May be expensive to install and maintain
(iii) May cause downstream flooding if not properly designed and managed



(i) The area of the farmland is A = πr²/4 = 3.14 × (1.960/2)²/4 = 3.0 m².(rounded to the nearest whole number)

(ii) Number of mounds = Area of farmland / Area covered by one mound
N = A/m² = 3.00/2 = 1.5 = 1 mound (rounded down to the nearest whole number).

(iii) Total number of setts = Total area to be planted × Seed rate
S = 3.00m² × 5,000 setts/ha = 15,000
Total number of setts= 15,000 setts

(iv) Three cropping systems that will be useful for yam production by the community on the farmland are intercropping, crop rotation, and mixed cropping.

(i) Providing shade and shelter for crops and livestock
(ii) Improving soil fertility and structure through nutrient cycling and soil erosion control
(iii) Generating income and diversifying farm products through timber, fruit, and medicinal plant production

(i) Sida acuta (broomweed)
(ii) Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)
(iii) Bidens pilosa (blackjack)


(i) Mulching helps to conserve soil moisture, suppress weed growth, and improve soil fertility.
(ii) Staking helps to support the yam vines and prevent them from falling over, which can improve yields and prevent damage to the yam tubers.
(iii) Training of vine helps to direct the growth of the yam vines and prevent them from becoming tangled, which can improve yields and make harvesting easier.

(i) Elephant grass – Pennisetum purpureum
(ii) Carpet grass – Axonopus compressus
(iii) Stylo – Stylosanthes guianensis
(iv) Puero – Pueraria phaseoloides

(i) Weeds can help to improve soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil.
(ii) Weeds can provide habitat and food for beneficial insects and wildlife.
(iii) Weeds can help to prevent soil erosion by protecting the soil surface from wind and water.
(iv) Some weeds have medicinal properties and can be used for traditional medicine.

(6d) Farmland calculations:

(i) Area of the farmland:
Length = 60m
Width = 30m

Area = Length × Width
Area = 60m × 30m
Area = 1800m²

(ii) Plant population in the farmland:
Spacing = 30cm by 30cm

To calculate the number of plants, we need to convert the spacing to meters:
30cm = 30/100 = 0.3m

Plant population = (Length in meters / Spacing in meters) × (Width in meters / Spacing in meters)
Plant population = (60m / 0.3m) × (30m / 0.3m)
Plant population = 200 × 100
Plant population = 20,000 plants

Therefore, the plant population in the farmland is 20,000.



(i) Health status of the rabbit
(ii) Age and weight of the rabbit
(iii) Reproductive history of the rabbit
(iv) Conformation and breed of the rabbit

(i) Proper temperature and humidity control
(ii) Regular turning of the eggs
(iii) Adequate ventilation
(iv) Proper sanitation and disinfection of equipment

(i) Environmental temperature
(ii) Feed intake
(iii) Type of feed and its nutrient content
(iv) Physiological state of the animal (e.g. lactation, growth, pregnancy)

(i) Amylase – breaks down carbohydrates
(ii) Protease – breaks down proteins
(iii) Lipase – breaks down fats
(iv) Nuclease – breaks down nucleic acids


(i) Transport of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products
(ii) Regulation of body temperature
(iii) Protection against infection and disease
(iv) Maintenance of acid-base balance

(i) Hides
– Source of leather for clothing, bags, and shoes
– Source of gelatin for food and pharmaceuticals

(ii) Egg
– Source of protein for human consumption
– Source of vaccines for human and animal diseases

(iii) Tail
– Source of oil for cosmetics and soaps
– Source of medicine in traditional medicine

(i) Iodine
– One Function: Required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones
– One Deficiency symptom: hypothyroidism

(ii) Magnesium
– One Function: Required for muscle and nerve function, bone development, and energy metabolism
– One Deficiency symptom: irregular heartbeat

(iii) Calcium
– One Function: Required for bone and teeth development, muscle and nerve function, and blood clotting
– One Deficiency symptom: muscle weakness



(i) Total person-days in 2017 = Total person-days in 2015 / Number of available laborers in 2017
Total person-days in 2017 = 60 person-days / 4 laborers
Total person-days in 2017 = 15 days took 15 days for the work to be done in 2017.

(ii) Two types of agricultural labour that are always available for production are family labour and hired labour.
(iii) Two farm records where the information of labour services on the farm should be documented are the labour register and the payroll.

(i) Wholesalers
(ii) Retailers
(iii) Brokers
(iv) Commission agents

Six problems that extension workers commonly encounter in rural areas are:
(i) Poor infrastructure and limited access to information and resources
(ii) Limited education and literacy among farmers
(iii) Traditional farming practices and resistance to change
(iv) Inadequate funding and resources for extension programs
(v) Political instability and conflict
(vi) Climate change and environmental degradation.


Scale of preference refers to the order in which an individual or society ranks different wants or needs in order of importance.

(i) Elasticity of demand = [(Q2 – Q1) / ((Q2 + Q1) / 2)] / [(P2 – P1) / ((P2 + P1) / 2)]
= [(28,500 – 59,800) / ((28,500 + 59,800) / 2)] / [(750 – 450) / ((750 + 450) / 2)]
= -0.77
(ii) The demand for grape fruits is inelastic.
(iii) Three factors that may affect the demand of grape fruit are:
1. Price of grape fruits
2. Availability of substitutes
3. Consumer income levels
(iv) Two farm accounts where the information will be documented are:
1. Sales ledger
2. Inventory ledger

(i) Demonstrations can help farmers learn new skills and techniques.
(ii) Demonstrations can be used to show the benefits of new technologies or practices.
(iii) Demonstrations can help farmers to see the results of different management strategies.
(iv) Demonstrations can be used to encourage farmers to adopt new practices or technologies.
(v) Demonstrations can be an effective way to build relationships with farmers.
(vi) Demonstrations can be used to gather feedback and evaluate the effectiveness of extension programs.


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