IRS THEORY ANSWERS
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
(i)Qul huwal laahu ahad
(iii)Lam yalid wa lam yoolad
(iv)Wa lam yakul-lahoo kufuwan ahad
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
(i)Say, “He is God, the One.
(ii)God, the Absolute.
(iii)He begets not, nor was He begotten.
(iv)And there is nothing comparable to Him.”
Surah Al-Ikhlas proclaims the Oneness of Allah and this concept is presented in the first ayah. The second ayah declares that Allah is As-Samad implying that He has all the attributes of perfection. As-Samad is one of the Names of Allah. It means the one Who everybody depends on, but the one who doesn’t depend on anyone, it also indicates that Allah is unlike His creation. The third ayah describes that He was not born nor did He give birth and the last ayah declares that Allah is beyond comparison. Surah Al-Ikhlas directly supports the first pillar of Islam, the shahadah.
Surah al-Ikhlas is one of the first surahs that many Muslims remember learning as a child and this is also true for those who convert to Islam. After a person has learnt the basics of the five daily prayers they are usually anxious to recite the shorter surahs of the Quran in their prayers, and almost always surah Al-Ikhlas is one of them.
Reciting surah Al-Ikhlas may be the means of attaining Paradise and earning Allah’s love. From the ahadith we are able to find some of the many benefits of loving, reciting and living by the principles outlined in this short surah.
Prophet Muhammad sent a man as a leader of an expedition. During the journey, in every prayer he concluded his recitation of the Quran with surah Al-Ikhlas. On their return his companions mentioned this to Prophet Muhammad, who replied, “Ask him why he did so”. When the man was asked, he answered, “In this surah the attributes of the Merciful Allah have been stated; therefore, I love to recite it again and again.” When the Prophet Muhammad heard this reply, he said to the people, “Inform him that Allah holds him in great love and esteem.
Fajr (2 Rakah)
This takes place at pre-dawn
Dhuhr (4 Rakah)
This takes place just after the sun reaches its zenith
Asr (4 Rakah)
This takes place between noon and sunset
Maghrib (3 Rakah)
This takes place just after sunset
Isha (4 Rakah)
This takes place during the night/at night-time
1. he maintained the unity and integrity of the Islamic state when people rebelled after the Prophet’s death by organizing various campaigns and expeditions such as the campaigns to fight against the apostates, false prophets, expeditions to Syria, Persia.
2. he expanded the Muslim empire through preaching of Islam far and wide.
3. Compilation of the Quran: during the Prophet’s lifetime, the Quran was written on different materials and it was feared that it may be lost hence under the leadership of Abubakar, it was compiled into one volume.
4. He was strict in administration and he never allowed an of his officers to behave in an irregular manner.
5. he decided the matters of the state after consultation and appointed public officers on merit.
6. he strengthened the Muslim army by ensuring proper administration, high level of motivation and discipline hence gained success in all expeditions.
7. he divided the Arabian Peninsula into different provinces for the purpose of providing better services and effective administration to the Muslims.
8. he special attention to the preaching of Islam e.g he preached to the enemies before fighting them.
9. he bought the freedom of several Muslim slaves who were persecuted by their masters e.g Bilal
10. In Madina he purchased a plot used to construct a mosque and the prophets house, he also contributed everything he had towards the Tabuk expedition.
11. he participated in almost all battles which the prophet fought.
(i)Compilation of Sahih al-Bukhari:
Imam Bukhari spent years traveling extensively across the Muslim world, meeting scholars, and collecting Hadith narrations. His primary objective was to gather only the most authentic Hadiths, rigorously scrutinizing their chains of narrators (isnad) and assessing the reliability of the narrators. Sahih al-Bukhari consists of approximately 7,275 Hadiths, carefully selected from a pool of over 600,000 narrations. It is regarded as the most authentic book after the Qur’an.
(ii)Methodology and Criteria for Authentication:
Imam Bukhari developed a comprehensive methodology for the authentication of Hadiths. He established strict criteria to ensure the reliability of the narrations, including the integrity and trustworthiness of narrators, the continuity of the chain of narrators, and the absence of contradictions or discrepancies. His meticulous approach became a benchmark for evaluating the authenticity of Hadiths.
(iii)Collection of Authentic Chains of Narrators:
Imam Bukhari paid great attention to documenting the chains of narrators for each Hadith. He traced the lineages of the narrators, verified their biographies, and sought to establish an unbroken chain of transmission. This meticulous effort ensured the reliability and authenticity of the Hadiths included in Sahih al-Bukhari.
(iv)Organization and Classification:
Sahih al-Bukhari is organized thematically, with Hadiths categorized into chapters based on their subject matter. This systematic arrangement allows readers to easily navigate through different topics and find relevant Hadiths. The comprehensive nature of Sahih al-Bukhari covers a wide range of subjects, including beliefs, ethics, rituals, jurisprudence, and more.
(v)Influence on Hadith Scholarship:
Imam Bukhari’s work had a profound impact on the field of Hadith scholarship. His meticulous approach to Hadith authentication and compilation set new standards for the discipline. Many subsequent scholars and compilers of Hadith collections drew inspiration from his methodology and built upon his work.
(vi)Imam Bukhari’s contributions significantly enriched the science of Hadith and played a crucial role in preserving the sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). His work continues to serve as an invaluable resource for scholars, students, and Muslims worldwide, ensuring the transmission of authentic knowledge and guidance from the early Islamic period.
Hadith 9 al-nawawi
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say:
What I have forbidden for you, avoid. What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. For verily, it was only their excessive questioning and disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed [the nations] who were before you.
Stay Away from What is Prohibited
“What I have forbidden for you, avoid.” We have to follow this command all the time, and in all situations. This order has to be followed except under dire circumstances, such as when one is starving and there is no food available except for some meat that was not properly slaughtered. In conditions other than that of necessity, however, all Muslims have to avoid what is forbidden.
Obligations are According to Ability
“What I have ordered you to do, do as much of it as you can” is an important principle of Islam. The Prophet (saw) is indicating that we won’t be able to do all what is required, but we have to do as much of it as we can. Based upon this principle are countless other rulings. Prayer, for example: the Prophet (saw) said, ‘Pray standing; if you are not able to; pray sitting, if you are not able to; pray (while lying) on your side.