(i)Public Ignorance: Some Nigerian communities have the perception that archaeology’s primary concerns are against principles guiding their
religion or culture and tradition. As a result, such societies are willing to do anything humanly possible to frustrate the archaeologists and teams of archaeology departments in Nigerian universities carrying out research in such communities.

(ii)Environmental Challenges: The location of Nigeria in the tropics has placed the country at a disadvantaged position when it comes to the preservation of archaeological materials buried in the ground. Like other countries in the tropics, the climate is humid, the soil is usually acidic and erosion is also common.

(iii)Corruption: Corruption which is a common problem in Nigeria
(Adagbabiri, 2018), is also found in the CH sector. Here, the first
individuals to watch out for when corruption is mentioned are the political office holders appointed to oversee the affairs of CH institutions.

(iv)Instability/Insecurity: Another challenge that has posed a serious obstacle to the wellbeing of CH resources and archaeological research in Nigeria in recent times is instability and/or insecurity. This situation has become a common vice in all the locations of the country.


(i) Autonomous Regional Governance: Non-centralized states in Nigeria often have autonomous regional governance structures. These regions have a level of self-governance and decision-making power, allowing them to manage their affairs to some extent.

(ii) Greater Resource Control: Non-centralized states have greater control over the resources within their boundaries. This includes natural resources such as oil, minerals, and agricultural products. They can negotiate and manage the exploitation of these resources and retain a larger share of the revenue generated.

(iii) Revenue Allocation: Non-centralized states have the authority to allocate and manage their own revenue. They can collect taxes, fees, and levies, and have the power to determine how these funds are spent within their jurisdiction.

(iv) Local Legislation: Non-centralized states can enact and enforce laws specific to their region. They have legislative bodies, such as state assemblies, which can pass laws and regulations that are applicable within their boundaries, as long as they do not conflict with federal laws.

(v) Independent Judiciary: Non-centralized states have their own judicial systems, with independent courts that can adjudicate legal matters within their jurisdiction. They can interpret and apply both state and federal laws within the scope of their authority.



(i) Afonja
(ii) Alimi
(iii) Kosoko

(i) Political development: The wars helped shape the political landscape of Nigeria by leading to the emergence of powerful kingdoms and city-states such as Oyo, Ibadan and Ife.

(ii) Cultural preservation: The wars played a key role in preserving Yoruba culture, traditions and beliefs, which have been passed down from generation to generation.

(iii) Economic impact: The wars disrupted trade and commerce, resulting in the decline of some Yoruba towns and the rise of others.

(iv) Colonial influence: The wars paved the way for the eventual colonization of Nigeria by the British, as they took advantage of the political instability and fragmentation caused by the wars to establish their authority over the region.


(i) Oba’s Court: The Oba’s Court was the most important socio-political organization in Benin during the 19th century.It served as the seat of power and was responsible for governing the kingdom. The Oba was the head of the court and he held the most power in the kingdom. The Oba’s court was also responsible for preserving the kingdom’s culture and traditions

(ii) Eghaevbo N’ore: Eghaevbo N’ore was a council of elders that advised the Oba on matters of governance, including legal issues and the appointment of officials. The council was composed of highly revered and respected individuals who represented different lineages in the kingdom.

(iii) Ekine Society: The Ekine Society was a secret society that served as a social, religious, and political organization. Its members were men who had attained a certain level of success in society and were initiated into the society upon meeting certain criteria. The Ekine Society was known for its use of drums, dances, and other forms of cultural expression.

(iv) Iwebo: Iwebo was a society of women who played important roles in the governance of the kingdom. They performed various functions, including the collection of taxes, the maintenance of roads and other infrastructure, and the provision of social services. Iwebo also had a role in resolving disputes and promoting peace within the kingdom.

(v) Age Grade System: The Age Grade System was a socio-political organization that grouped individuals according to their age and provided a framework for social, economic, and political activities. Each age grade had specific roles and responsibilities, and individuals moved through the age grades as they matured. The age grade system served as a means of socializing young people into the norms and values of the kingdom and provided a platform for political participation.



(i) Preservation of Local Customs and Traditions: Indirect Rule allowed the British administrators to govern through existing indigenous institutions and rulers. This approach aimed to maintain local customs, traditions, and social structures, providing a sense of continuity for the Nigerian people.

(ii) Minimal Disruption of Local Governance: By employing traditional rulers and chiefs as intermediaries, the British authorities minimized disruptions to local governance structures. This approach helped to maintain stability and avoid significant upheavals that might have occurred with a more direct form of colonial rule.

(iii) Efficient Administrative System: The Indirect Rule system utilized existing native administrative structures, such as traditional councils and courts, to enforce British policies and laws. This approach was seen as efficient since it utilized local resources and knowledge, reducing the burden on the colonial administration.

(iv) Economic Development: The British authorities often relied on local elites to collect taxes and administer economic policies. This approach allowed the indigenous rulers and chiefs to retain some control over economic affairs and provided opportunities for them to participate in the colonial economy.

(v) Access to Education and Western Knowledge: Indirect Rule brought Western education to some parts of Nigeria through the establishment of schools by the colonial authorities. This provided some Nigerians with access to formal education, which could lead to improved opportunities in the colonial administration or other sectors.

(vi) Infrastructure Development: Under Indirect Rule, the British colonial administration invested in infrastructure projects like road construction, telecommunication networks, and health facilities in certain areas. This led to improved access to services and increased connectivity within the region.

(vii) Exposure to Modern Systems of Governance: The presence of British administrators and their interaction with traditional rulers exposed the Nigerians to modern systems of governance, legal frameworks, and bureaucratic structures. This exposure opened up avenues for some Nigerians to gain knowledge and experience that would later influence their involvement in post-colonial governance.

(viii) Recognition of Indigenous Authorities: Indirect Rule conferred authority and recognition on indigenous rulers and chiefs, which helped to maintain their prestige and status within their communities. This recognition provided some level of stability and continuity in local leadership, which was seen as advantageous by those who benefited from this arrangement.


(i) Pan-Africanism and Unity: Nigeria, like many other African nations, embraced the principles of pan-Africanism, which advocated for unity, solidarity, and cooperation among African countries. Nigeria recognized the importance of joining a continental organization that aimed to promote African unity, address common challenges, and work towards the liberation and progress of the African continent as a whole.

(ii) Decolonization and Self-Determination: At the time of Nigeria’s independence in 1960, many African countries were still under colonial rule. Joining the OAU was seen as a means to support the decolonization process and promote self-determination for African nations. Nigeria sought to align itself with other African countries in the pursuit of political independence, sovereignty, and the right to determine its destiny.

(iii) Regional Security and Stability: Nigeria, as one of the largest and most populous countries in Africa, recognized the importance of regional security and stability. By being a member of the OAU, Nigeria could actively participate in discussions, negotiations, and initiatives aimed at resolving conflicts, promoting peace, and maintaining stability across the continent. Nigeria has contributed troops and resources to various peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the OAU/AU.

(iv) Economic Integration and Development: Nigeria understood the potential benefits of regional economic integration for Africa’s development. Membership in the OAU provided Nigeria with a platform to engage in discussions on economic cooperation, trade facilitation, investment promotion, and infrastructure development at the continental level. Nigeria sought to leverage its resources, market size, and expertise to foster economic growth and development within Africa.

(v) Influence and Leadership: Nigeria, being one of Africa’s most influential and politically active countries, sought to exert its influence and play a leadership role within the OAU/AU. By actively participating in the organization, Nigeria could shape and contribute to the decision-making processes, advocate for its interests, and champion causes that aligned with its foreign policy objectives. Nigeria has held key leadership positions within the OAU/AU, including serving as the Chairperson of the organization.


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