INSTRUCTION; ANSWER FIVE QUESTIONS IN ALL
PART I: ANSWER AT LEAST TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION
A state can be defined as a geopolitical entity with a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and the ability to interact with other states.
(i) Defined territory: A state must have a clearly defined and recognized territory which includes a specific land area, territorial waters, and airspace. The boundaries should be established and recognized by other states.
(ii) Population: A state must have a permanent population residing within its territory. The size of the population is not a determining factor; it can be large or small.
(iii) Sovereignty: A state must have sovereignty, which means it has the authority to govern itself without interference from external powers. It has the power to make and enforce laws and make decisions on behalf of its population.
(iv) Government: A state must have a functioning government that exercises authority over its population and territory. The government establishes and enforces laws, maintains order, and provides services to its citizens.
(v) Recognition: A state must be recognized as a sovereign entity by other states in the international community. Recognition can be expressed through diplomatic relations or membership in international organizations such as the United Nations.
(vi) Capacity to enter into relations with other states: A state must have the ability to engage in international relations and interact with other states on political, economic, and social matters.
(vii) Permanence: A state is typically characterized by its permanence, meaning that it is expected to endure over time rather than being temporary or transitory.
(viii) Internal and external sovereignty: A state should possess internal sovereignty, meaning it has control over its internal affairs and its population. Additionally, it should possess external sovereignty, allowing it to interact with other states as an equal member of the international community.
(ix) Independence: A state should be independent in terms of its decision-making, governance, and external affairs, free from undue influence or control by other states or entities.
(PICK FIVE ONLY)
(i) Lawmaking: The primary function of a legislature is to create, amend, and repeal laws. This includes drafting legislation, debating its content, and ultimately passing it to become law.
(ii) Representing the electorate: Legislatures are responsible for representing the citizens and ensuring their diverse interests are heard and addressed. They act as a representative body for the people in the decision-making process.
(iii) Oversight of the executive branch: Legislatures play a crucial role in holding the executive branch accountable. They monitor the actions and policies of the government, scrutinize their performance, and provide oversight to prevent abuse of power.
(iv) Budgetary control: Legislatures have the power to approve and allocate budgets. They review and analyze government spending proposals, ensuring financial accountability and the wise use of public funds.
(v) Public policy formulation: Legislatures play a significant role in formulating public policy. Through committees and research, they examine various social, economic, and political issues and develop policies to address them.
(vi) Representation of minority interests: Legislatures provide a platform for minority voices to be heard. They help protect the rights and interests of marginalized communities, ensuring their concerns are taken into account during decision-making.
(vii) Conflict resolution: Legislatures act as a forum for resolving conflicts and disputes. Through debate, negotiation, and consensus-building, they work towards peaceful resolutions and compromise in areas of disagreement.
(viii) Promotion of democracy: Legislatives reinforce democratic principles by providing a space for open discussions, deliberations, and decision-making. They facilitate a collective decision-making process, fostering democratic values and citizen participation.
(ix) Constituency service: Legislators generally serve as a link between the government and the citizens. They provide assistance and support to constituents, addressing their concerns, and helping them navigate government programs and services.
(x) International representation: Legislatures often participate in international diplomacy and build relationships with other countries. They engage in inter-parliamentary cooperation, represent their nation’s interests abroad, and participate in global decision-making forums.
Political participation refers to the involvement of individuals or groups in the political process and decision-making activities of a society.
A republican form of government is a type of governance system in which the power is derived from the citizens and exercised by elected representatives who are accountable to the people.
(i) Sovereignty of the people: In a republican form of government, the ultimate authority rests with the people, who hold the power to choose their representatives and participate in decision-making.
(ii) Representative democracy: Republican governments are typically based on the principle of representative democracy, where citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf.
(iii) Limited government: A republican government is characterized by limited powers and functions. There are checks and balances in place to prevent any one branch or individual from accumulating excessive power.
(iv) Rule of law: The principle of the rule of law is essential in a republican form of government. All individuals, including government officials, are subject to the law, creating a system of accountability and fairness.
(v) Protection of individual rights: Republican governments prioritize the protection of individual rights and liberties. These rights are enshrined in a constitution or a bill of rights, providing a framework that safeguards the freedoms of the people.
(vi) Separation of powers: Republican governments often separate powers between different branches, such as the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. This separation ensures a system of checks and balances, preventing the concentration of power.
(vii) Regular free and fair elections: A republican government promotes regular free and fair elections as a means for the people to choose their representatives and hold them accountable.
(viii) Civil liberties and tolerance: Republican governments typically emphasize civil liberties and tolerance, allowing for diversity in thought, opinion, and lifestyle within the framework of law and order.
Proportional representation is an electoral system in which seats are allocated to political parties based on the proportion of votes they receive in the election.
(i) Civil service refers to the employees working under the government’s executive branch, while public service encompasses a broader range of employment opportunities within government and non-governmental organizations.
(ii) Civil service positions are typically career-based and offer more stability, job security, and opportunities for advancement within the government structure, while public service positions may vary in terms of duration and job security.
(iii) Civil service roles often require specific qualifications and expertise relevant to the position, while public service jobs can be more diverse in terms of skill requirements.
(iv) Civil servants are accountable to the government and are subject to government regulations and policies, while individuals in public service may work under different organizations and may have varying levels of accountability.
(v) Civil service positions are typically paid from public funds and follow specific salary structures, while public service roles can be both paid and unpaid, depending on the organization and nature of the work.
(i) Bureaucratic inefficiency: The Nigeria civil service has often been criticized for its slow, cumbersome, and inefficient bureaucratic processes. This can lead to delays in decision-making, implementation, and service delivery.
(ii) Corruption and lack of transparency: Another major criticism is the prevalence of corruption within the civil service. Cases of bribery, embezzlement, and favoritism are often reported, undermining transparency and eroding public trust.
(iii) Political interference: The civil service is often accused of being influenced by political interests. This can lead to the appointment of unqualified individuals or the manipulation of processes for personal or political gains, affecting the merit-based nature of recruitment and promotions.
(iv) Poor work ethics and professionalism: Some civil servants have been criticized for their lack of commitment, professionalism, and dedication to their work. This affects productivity and undermines the overall effectiveness of the civil service.
(v) Outdated systems and limited capacity: Many argue that the civil service lacks modernization and suffers from outdated systems and limited capacity. Insufficient training and inadequate infrastructure hinder the ability of civil servants to effectively carry out their roles.
Government as an academic field of study refers to the in-depth examination and analysis of political institutions, processes, policies, and governance systems at various levels of government. It encompasses the study of the structures, functions, and behaviors of governments, the interactions between institutions and individuals, the formulation and implementation of public policies, the distribution of power and resources, and the ways in which decisions are made within political systems.
(i) Protection against abuse of power: By enshrining these rights in a constitution, it serves as a check against the abuse of power by the government or other entities. It establishes a clear set of limitations on what actions can be taken by those in authority, ensuring that individuals are protected from arbitrary actions.
(ii) Promotion of individual freedom: These rights guarantee individual freedom and autonomy. They provide individuals with the ability to make choices, express themselves, and pursue their interests without unwarranted interference from the state or other individuals.
(iii) Equality and non-discrimination: Fundamental human rights aim to promote equality and non-discrimination. By enshrining these rights in a constitution, it establishes a framework for treating all individuals fairly and equally, regardless of their differences in race, gender, religion, or other characteristics.
(iv) Legal recourse and accountability: By including these rights in a constitution, individuals are given a legal avenue to seek redress if their rights are violated. It establishes a mechanism for holding those responsible for human rights abuses accountable for their actions.
(v) Normative and symbolic value: Including fundamental human rights in a constitution carries significant symbolic and normative value. It expresses a society’s commitment to upholding and protecting the dignity and well-being of its citizens. It also serves as a guiding ethical framework for the conduct of individuals and institutions within the society.
PART II: ANSWER AT LEAST TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION
(PICK FIVE ONLY)
(i) Advising the Alaafin: The Oyomesi served as the council of the Alaafin, providing him with advice and guidance in matters of governance.
(ii) Resolving Disputes: They acted as a judicial body, settling disputes and maintaining law and order within the empire.
(iii) Enforcing Decisions: The Oyomesi ensured that decisions made by the Alaafin were implemented and enforced throughout the empire.
(iv) Maintaining Stability: They played a crucial role in maintaining political stability by advising the Alaafin on matters relating to statecraft and governance.
(v) Protecting the Dynasty: The Oyomesi served as a bodyguard for the Alaafin, ensuring his safety and security.
(vi) Appointment of Chiefs: They participated in the selection and appointment of chiefs in different regions of the Oyo empire.
(vii) Administration: The Oyomesi played a significant role in the administration of the empire, overseeing various aspects of governance such as taxation, justice, and defense.
(viii) Mediation: They acted as mediators in conflicts between different factions within the empire, working towards peaceful resolutions.
(ix) Conducting Rituals: The Oyomesi performed important religious and ceremonial functions, including organizing and overseeing religious rituals and festivals.
(x) Preserving Tradition: They were responsible for upholding and preserving the traditions, customs, and cultural practices of the Oyo empire.
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(i) Consultative decision-making: The Yoruba government emphasized consensus-building and extensive consultations among community leaders, chiefs, and elders.
(ii) Representative governance: Each Yoruba community had its own council of chiefs, who served as representatives of their respective communities and had the authority to address local issues.
(iii) Separation of powers: The Yoruba government had a check-and-balance system where power was distributed among different entities such as the Oba, Oyo Mesi, and Ogboni fraternity.
(iv) Regular town hall meetings: The Yoruba people conducted regular town hall meetings called “Ojumo” to discuss and address communal issues, allowing the entire community to participate in decision-making.
(v) Consensus-based decision-making: The Yoruba government valued consensus-building, seeking input from various stakeholders and striving for agreements that satisfied the majority.
(vi) Inclusive participation: Yoruba government encouraged participation and representation from diverse groups, including women, guilds, and professional associations, allowing for a broad spectrum of voices to be heard.
(vii) Rule of law: The Yoruba followed a codified legal system known as the “Odu Ifa,” which ensured fairness, justice, and the protection of individual rights.
(viii) Local autonomy: Each Yoruba town or city had significant autonomy to govern its own affairs, preserving their cultural and administrative uniqueness.
(ix) Meritocracy: Leadership positions in the Yoruba government were often based on merit and demonstrated ability, including noble birth, education, wealth, or exceptional talent, rather than solely on inheritance or birthright.
(x) Peaceful transitions of power: The Yoruba government established clear guidelines and processes for the selection and succession of leaders, ensuring a peaceful transfer of power from one ruler to another.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Economic growth: The National Party of Nigeria (NPN) implemented various policies and programs aimed at fostering economic growth during its time in power. These initiatives included the establishment of industries, expansion of agricultural production, and increased foreign direct investment.
(ii) Infrastructure development: The NPN prioritized infrastructure development across the country. They embarked on the construction of roads, bridges, airports, and ports, thereby improving transportation networks and facilitating economic activities.
(iii) Education reforms: The NPN introduced reforms in the education sector, with a focus on improving access to quality education for all Nigerians. They increased the number of schools, promoted teacher training programs, and enhanced educational facilities.
(iv) Agricultural modernization: The NPN implemented initiatives to modernize and transform the agricultural sector. They provided farmers with improved farming techniques, increased access to credit, and introduced irrigation schemes to boost crop production.
(v) Job creation: The NPN implemented policies aimed at reducing unemployment rates. They promoted entrepreneurship, attracted foreign investments, and created opportunities through the establishment of industries, thereby generating employment for Nigerians.
(vi) Healthcare improvement: The NPN prioritized healthcare by increasing investment in the healthcare system. They expanded existing healthcare facilities, built new hospitals and clinics, and enhanced the training of healthcare professionals.
(vii) Social welfare programs: The NPN implemented social welfare programs to alleviate poverty and improve social well-being. These initiatives included the provision of subsidized food, housing schemes, and targeted support for vulnerable groups.
(viii) Political stability: The NPN played a role in maintaining political stability during their time in power. They promoted peaceful coexistence among diverse ethnic and religious groups, fostered dialogue between regions, and ensured the functioning of democratic processes.
(ix) Diplomatic engagement: The NPN engaged in active diplomatic relations with other countries, forging alliances and strengthening Nigeria’s position on the international stage. They facilitated trade agreements, attracted foreign investments, and promoted cultural exchanges.
(x) Women empowerment: The NPN recognized the importance of women empowerment in national development. They introduced policies to promote gender equality, encouraged female participation in politics, and implemented programs to enhance women’s economic opportunities.
(i) Devolution of Powers: The 1954 constitution decentralized power by granting considerable autonomy and legislative powers to the regional governments. It allowed the regions to have control over key policy areas such as agriculture, education, health, and transportation, which led to the decentralization of governance.
(ii) Fiscal Federalism: The constitution established a revenue allocation formula that gave the regions control over their financial resources. It provided for the sharing of revenue between the federal and regional governments, ensuring that regions had enough financial autonomy to cater to their local needs.
(iii) Regional Governments: The constitution allowed the creation of regional governments, which provided a platform for regional representation in the federal structure. This gave regions the opportunity to have a say in the decision-making process and promoted a sense of autonomy and self-governance.
(iv) Judicial Autonomy: The 1954 constitution established a federal court system that allowed each region to have its own high court. This ensured that regional disputes could be resolved within their respective jurisdictions, promoting judicial autonomy and decentralization of the legal system.
(v) Bicameral Legislature: The constitution introduced a bicameral legislature at both the federal and regional levels. This helped to ensure checks and balances and gave regional governments a voice in the legislative process, strengthening their autonomy and representation.
(PICK FIVE ONLY)
(i) Lack of coordination and unity among member states: The O.A.U struggled to maintain unity among its member states due to conflicting national interests and ideological divisions.
(ii) Limited financial resources: The organization had limited financial resources, which hindered its ability to effectively implement its initiatives and fulfill its mandates.
(iii) Dominance of major powers: The influence of major powers, both within and outside Africa, often undermined the decision-making processes of the O.A.U and weakened its authority.
(iv) Inefficient decision-making structure: The structure of the O.A.U decision-making processes, which relied heavily on consensus-based decision-making, often led to slow progress and difficulties in implementing effective policies.
(v) Weak enforcement mechanisms: The O.A.U lacked strong enforcement mechanisms, which undermined its ability to hold member states accountable for violations of its charter, resolutions, or decisions.
(vi) Inadequate response to conflicts: The O.A.U struggled to effectively respond to conflicts within Africa, often due to a lack of consensus among member states or hesitance to intervene in the internal affairs of sovereign nations.
(vii) Limited focus on economic development: The O.A.U predominantly focused on political and security issues, with limited emphasis on economic development. This hindered its ability to address economic challenges and promote sustainable growth across the continent.
(viii) Limited capacity for implementing programs: The organization lacked the necessary capacity, resources, and expertise to effectively implement its programs and initiatives, leading to slow progress and limited impact.
(ix) Competition among regional organizations: The emergence of multiple regional organizations in Africa led to competition and duplication of efforts, undermining the unity and effectiveness of the O.A.U.
(x) Lack of public support and engagement: The organization often struggled to garner public support and engagement, limiting its ability to mobilize resources, advocate for its goals, and effectively address the challenges facing the continent.
(PICK FIVE ONLY)
(i) Political instability: Many member countries of ECOWAS have experienced political instability, including coups, civil wars, and political unrest. This instability undermines economic development and regional integration efforts.
(ii) Corruption: Corruption is pervasive in several ECOWAS countries, leading to mismanagement of resources, lack of accountability, and undermining of public trust. It hampers economic growth and discourages foreign investment.
(iii) Poverty and inequality: High rates of poverty and income inequality persist in ECOWAS member countries, contributing to social tensions and hindering sustainable development efforts.
(iv) Unemployment and underemployment: The region faces significant challenges in creating employment opportunities for its growing population. Insufficient job opportunities lead to high rates of unemployment and underemployment, particularly among young people.
(v) Inadequate infrastructure: Many ECOWAS countries suffer from inadequate infrastructure, including transportation, electricity, and telecommunications networks. This limits trade, connectivity, and economic development within the region.
(vi) Insufficient access to financing: Limited access to finance, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises, hinders entrepreneurship and investment. This poses a significant obstacle to economic growth and development.
(vii) Inadequate education and skills training: Many ECOWAS member countries face challenges in providing quality education and skills training. A lack of skilled workforce affects productivity and hampers economic diversification.
(viii) Security challenges: The region is confronted with various security threats, including terrorism, religious extremism, organized crime, and inter-communal conflicts. These challenges impede economic activities and pose risks to regional stability.
(ix) Weak agricultural sector: The agricultural sector, which is a significant source of employment and livelihood for many West Africans, faces numerous challenges. These include limited access to modern farming techniques, climate change, and inadequate support for smallholder farmers.
(x) Trade barriers and limited market integration: Despite efforts towards regional integration, the existence of trade barriers such as tariffs, non-tariff barriers, and cumbersome cross-border procedures hampers intra-regional trade. This limits the potential economic benefits and hinders market development.
(PICK FIVE ONLY)
(i) Enhanced representation: The Lyttleton Constitution granted increased representation for Nigerians in the legislative councils at both the regional and federal levels. This allowed for a more inclusive political system.
(ii) Development of political parties: The constitution facilitated the development of political parties in Nigeria, providing the framework for multi-party democracy and encouraging political participation and competition.
(iii) Regional autonomy: The constitution introduced a system of regionalism, granting significant autonomy to the regions. This enabled the regions to manage their own affairs and pursue policies tailored to their specific needs.
(iv) Protection of minority rights: The constitution included provisions to protect the rights and interests of minority ethnic groups, ensuring their participation in the political process and safeguarding their cultural, linguistic, and religious practices.
(v) Simplified central government: The Lyttleton Constitution streamlined the central government by reducing its size and role. This allowed for a more efficient and effective governance structure.
(vi) Local government reforms: The constitution introduced reforms to enhance local government administration, providing for the establishment of local councils and empowering them to address the needs and issues specific to their localities.
(vii) Judicial independence: The constitution strengthened the independence of the judiciary by separating it from the executive branch. This ensured the impartiality of the legal system and protected the rule of law.
(viii) Protection of civil liberties: The Lyttleton Constitution outlined fundamental rights and freedoms for Nigerians, safeguarding individual liberties such as freedom of speech, assembly, and association.
(ix) Methodology for constitutional amendment: The constitution introduced a clear methodology for amending the constitution, allowing for necessary adaptations and modifications over time to meet changing circumstances and needs.
(x) Transition towards self-government: The Lyttleton Constitution marked a significant step towards eventual self-government for Nigeria. It provided a framework for evolving Nigeria into an independent nation, paving the way for further constitutional developments.
(PICK FIVE ONLY)
(i) Power imbalance: The constitution created a significant power imbalance between the central government and the regional governments. This led to tensions and conflicts regarding resource allocation and policy-making.
(ii) Weak central government: The central government was weakened under the Lyttleton constitution, resulting in challenges to effective governance, coordination, and decision-making at the national level.
(iii) Limited representation: The constitution provided limited representation for the diverse ethnic and regional groups within Nigeria, leading to feelings of marginalization and exclusion among certain communities.
(iv) Limited political participation: The constitution placed restrictions on political participation, including prohibitive property and educational qualifications for voters and candidates, which limited the inclusiveness of the political process.
(v) Lack of democratic principles: The Lyttleton constitution did not fully embrace democratic principles, such as free and fair elections, political pluralism, and protection of civil liberties, undermining the development of a sustainable democratic system.
(vi) Centralized economic control: The constitution retained excessive control over economic matters in the hands of the central government, hindering the development of regional autonomy and economic growth.
(vii) Limited devolution of power: Despite the inclusion of regional governments, the Lyttleton constitution did not adequately devolve power to the regions, impeding their ability to address local needs and make decisions autonomously.
(viii) Insufficient checks and balances: The constitution lacked robust mechanisms for checks and balances, leading to potential abuses of power by the central authorities and regional governments.
(ix) Inadequate representation of women: The constitution failed to promote gender equality and women’s representation in the political sphere, excluding them from meaningful participation and decision-making processes.
(x) Ignoring cultural diversity: The Lyttleton constitution did not adequately address the cultural and ethnic diversity of Nigeria, thereby impeding the development of inclusive governance systems that could accommodate the various interests and aspirations of different groups.
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