NABTEB GEOGRAPHY ANSWERS
PART I: ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS ONLY
=GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT: EXPLOITATION OF PETROLEUM=
(1bi) Method of mining:
(i) Exploration: Geologists study rock formations and geological structures to identify areas with the potential for oil accumulation.
(ii) Drilling: Once a potential oil reservoir is identified, drilling operations commence.
(iii) Extraction: After drilling, oil extraction begins using various extraction techniques
(iv) Refining: Once the oil is extracted, it undergoes refining processes to separate it into various components, such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and other petroleum products.
(1bii) Economic importance:
(i) Petroleum serves as a raw material for the production of numerous industrial products
(ii) The by products are used in making insecticides, petroleum jelly, lubricating oil etc
(iii) It provides foreign exchange earnings to the economy
(iv) The petroleum industry creates job opportunities across multiple sectors
(1biii) Problems of exploration and exploitation:
(i) Inadequate skilled labour
(ii) Neglect of other sectors of the economy
(iii) Inadequate capital
(iv) Depletion of reserves
(v) Mining hazards
(vi) Fluctuations in world market prices
(i) Tropical Continental Belt: Kano, Kaduna
(ii) Tropical Hinterland: Jos, Makurdi
(iii) Sub-equatorial Climate: Port Harcourt, Calabar
– Rainfall pattern refers to the distribution and characteristics of rainfall in a particular area over time.
– Vegetative zone refers to distinct regions characterized by specific types of plant life adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions.
(ii) Factors influencing:
– Rainfall pattern is influenced by factors like latitude, altitude, wind patterns, and local geography.
– Vegetative zones are determined by the prevailing climate, including temperature, rainfall, and other environmental factors.
– Rainfall pattern focuses solely on the distribution of rainfall in a given region.
– Vegetative zones encompass a broader concept, including the various plant species and ecosystems found in a particular region.
(iv) Impact on Vegetation:
– Rainfall pattern plays a significant role in determining the types of plants and ecosystems that can thrive in an area. For example, regions with high and consistent rainfall are more likely to support lush rainforests, while areas with low rainfall may have deserts or arid landscapes.
– Vegetative zones are the result of the interplay between various environmental factors, and they determine the overall vegetation and ecosystem of an area.
(i) Precipitation: Rainfall increases significantly during this season. The amount of rainfall varies across different parts of the country, with the southern regions generally experiencing heavier rainfall compared to the northern regions. Rainfall patterns can be unpredictable, with periodic heavy downpours and thunderstorms.
(ii) Humidity: The rainy season is accompanied by high levels of humidity. The combination of moisture in the air and frequent rainfall leads to increased humidity levels, which can make the atmosphere feel muggy and uncomfortable.
(iii) Temperature: The rainy season is generally cooler than the preceding dry season due to cloud cover and precipitation. However, temperatures can still be relatively high, especially in the northern regions of Nigeria.
(iv) Vegetation and Agriculture: The rainfall during the rainy season supports the growth of vegetation and crops across the country. It rejuvenates the soil, allowing for agricultural activities and promoting lush green landscapes. Farmers rely on the rainy season to cultivate their crops.
(v) Flooding: In some areas, heavy rainfall during the rainy season can lead to flooding. Poor drainage systems and inadequate infrastructure exacerbate the impact of heavy rains, causing damage to property, displacement of people, and disruptions to transportation and daily life.
(i) Dry and dusty conditions: This can cause respiratory problems, exacerbate allergies and asthma, and generally make breathing more difficult.
(ii) The dusty conditions of Harmattan can cause skin dryness, chapping, irritations and itchy eyes which increases the risk of eye infections.
(iii) Economic impact: The dry and dusty conditions can negatively impact agriculture, affecting crop growth and reducing yields.
PART II; ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS ONLY
(i) Crop cultivation
(ii) Fish farming
(v) Livestock farming
(i) Limited access to finance: Many farmers lack access to affordable credit, making it difficult to invest in modern agricultural techniques, equipment, and inputs.
(ii) Poor infrastructure: Inadequate transportation, storage facilities, and irrigation systems hinder the efficient movement and preservation of agricultural products.
(iii) Inconsistent power supply: Frequent power outages affect the operation of farm machinery, processing plants, and cold storage facilities, leading to post-harvest losses.
(iv) Climate change and unpredictable weather patterns: Erratic rainfall, droughts, floods, and other climate-related events pose significant challenges to crop production and livestock rearing.
(v) Pests and diseases: Outbreaks of pests and diseases can devastate crops and livestock, leading to reduced yields and economic losses.
(i) Fragmentation of land: The land tenure system in eastern Nigeria often leads to the fragmentation of land into small and scattered plots due to inheritance practices. This fragmentation makes it challenging to implement large-scale agricultural projects and mechanized farming.
(ii) Insecurity of land tenure: The lack of secure land rights poses a problem in the region. Unclear land ownership, disputes, and conflicts over land can discourage long-term investments in agriculture and limit access to credit and government support.
(iii) Absence of land use planning: Eastern Nigeria faces issues related to the absence of comprehensive land use planning. This leads to inefficient land allocation, improper zoning for agricultural purposes, and encroachments on farmland for non-agricultural activities, such as urbanization and industrial development.
(i) Climate and vegetation: Northern Nigeria has a semi-arid to arid climate, characterized by extensive grasslands and savannahs suitable for grazing cattle.
(ii) Cultural and historical practices: Cattle rearing has been a traditional occupation and cultural symbol among various ethnic groups in the northern region, with a long history of nomadic or transhumant pastoralism.
(iii) Availability of grazing lands: The vast expanses of open land in northern Nigeria provide ample grazing opportunities for cattle, supporting the rearing of large herds.
(iv) Market demand: The northern region has a significant market for beef, milk, and other cattle products, driven by the region’s population size and culinary preferences.
(i) Population density: Urban settlements are characterized by a high population density, with a large number of people living in a relatively small area.
(ii) Infrastructure: Urban areas have well-developed infrastructure, including roads, bridges, transportation systems, utilities (such as water and electricity), and public facilities (such as schools, hospitals, and parks).
(iii) Diverse economic activities: Urban settlements are centers of economic activity, offering a wide range of job opportunities in various sectors like commerce, industry, services, and technology.
(iv) Social and cultural amenities: Urban areas typically have a rich array of social and cultural amenities, such as theaters, museums, art galleries, shopping centers, restaurants, and entertainment venues.
(v) Higher standard of living: Urban settlements often provide a higher standard of living compared to rural areas, with better access to education, healthcare, employment opportunities, and recreational facilities.
(i) Metropolis or Megacity: These are the largest urban areas, usually having a population exceeding several million. They serve as major economic, political, and cultural centers, and often have multiple central business districts.
(ii) City: Cities are large urban areas with significant population and economic activity. They typically have a diverse range of industries and services, and may have several distinct neighborhoods or districts.
(iii) Town: Towns are smaller than cities but larger than villages. They have a moderate population size and offer a range of basic services and amenities.
(iv) Village: Villages are small settlements, often characterized by a rural or semi-rural environment. They typically have a smaller population and offer limited services.
(v) Hamlet: Hamlets are the smallest type of urban settlement. They have a very small population and minimal infrastructure, often consisting of just a few houses or dwellings.
A nucleated settlement is a type of settlement pattern characterized by a closely clustered or compact arrangement of buildings and structures. In a nucleated settlement, the houses, buildings, and other structures are grouped together, often surrounding a central point or focal feature.
(i) Social cohesion: The compact nature of a nucleated settlement encourages social interactions and a sense of community. The close proximity of buildings and shared spaces promotes social cohesion among residents, facilitating stronger social connections, and a greater sense of belonging.
(ii) Efficient land use: Nucleated settlements make more efficient use of land compared to dispersed settlements. The concentration of buildings allows for better utilization of infrastructure, services, and amenities. It reduces the need for extensive road networks and reduces the overall infrastructure costs.
(iii) Preservation of natural resources: Nucleated settlements typically require less land than dispersed settlements. By compactly clustering buildings, it helps preserve surrounding natural resources such as agricultural land, forests, and open spaces. This approach can contribute to sustainable development and the conservation of valuable natural habitats.
Transportation refers to the movement of people, goods, and services from one place to another. It is a crucial aspect of modern society that enables economic activities, social interactions, and the exchange of goods and resources. Transportation systems utilize various modes, infrastructure, and vehicles to facilitate the movement of people and goods efficiently and safely.
(i) Cost efficiency: Pipelines can transport large volumes of liquids or gases over long distances at a relatively low cost per unit.
(ii) Safety and reliability: Pipelines provide a secure and reliable means of transporting fluids.
(i) Limited versatility: They cannot accommodate the transportation of solid goods or items requiring special handling.
(ii) High initial investment: Building a pipeline infrastructure requires significant investment, making it expensive to establish compared to other transportation modes.
(i) Limited versatility: Since pipelines are designed for specific types of fluids, they cannot be easily repurposed or adapted for transporting different goods or materials. This lack of flexibility makes pipelines unsuitable for transporting a wide range of products, limiting their usability in industries where versatility is essential.
(ii) High initial investment: The construction of pipeline networks involves substantial costs, including land acquisition, engineering, and installation. These upfront expenses can be a barrier for pipeline projects, especially in regions with challenging terrain or inadequate infrastructure. The high initial investment can lead to longer payback periods, making pipeline projects financially risky.
(i) Facilitates trade: Transportation enables the movement of goods and services between regions, both domestically and internationally. It connects producers with consumers, allowing for trade and exchange, which stimulates economic growth and development.
(ii) Enhances market access: Efficient transportation networks provide better access to markets for businesses and individuals. It reduces the cost and time required to reach customers, leading to increased market participation and opportunities for economic expansion.
(iii) Supports employment and labor mobility: Transportation creates job opportunities directly and indirectly. It requires a workforce for various tasks like driving, maintenance, logistics, and infrastructure development. Furthermore, efficient transportation systems enable labor mobility, allowing people to access employment opportunities in different regions, which helps to reduce unemployment rates.
(iv) Boosts industrial and agricultural productivity: Transportation plays a crucial role in the supply chain, facilitating the movement of raw materials to manufacturing plants and finished products to distribution centers or consumers. It enables industries and agricultural sectors to operate efficiently, increasing productivity and contributing to economic growth.
(v) Promotes regional development: Reliable transportation networks can lead to the development of previously isolated or underdeveloped regions. Improved connectivity encourages investment, tourism, and infrastructure development in these areas, creating economic opportunities and reducing regional disparities.