(i) Most farmers do not have money to purchase tools and farm implements
(ii) Subsistence farmer do not have money to buy land
(iii) Farmers do not have money to buy chemicals and fertilisers
(iv) Farmers do not have money to buy livestock feed.

(i) Improper storage reduces the quantity and quality of farm produce
(ii) Farm produce are sold off at cheap prices due to lack of storage facilities
(iii) Storage facilities are too expensive for the farmers
(iv) Lack of technical know how on how to store agricultural food

Farm planning is the drawing of farm land. It is the proper use of land without the risk of land degradation

(i) Topography
(ii) Accessibility
(iii) Soil type
(iv) Slope
(v) Hygiene
(vi) Drainage
(vii) Nearness to market

(i) It enable the farmer to make proper use of land
(ii) It enable neatness and avoid pollution of the farm
(iii) It ensures the location of livestock buildings in relation to other buildings
(iv) It ensure proper sitting of structures in certain locations.


(i) Rhizobium
(ii) Lightning
(iii) Decaying plant and animal
Animal faeces and urine

(2bi) Monocotyledonous are plants which passes only one seed leaf while dicotyledonous are plants which passes two seed leaves

(i) Maize, rice, oil palm, guinea grass
(ii)Mango, cowpea, groundnut, soyabeans

(i) Burning
(ii) Clean clearing
(iii) Overgrazing
(iv) Tillage


(i) Green manure: Green manure refers to the practice of growing specific plants, such as legumes or grasses, and then incorporating them into the soil while they are still green. This helps improve soil fertility by adding organic matter, increasing nutrient content, and enhancing soil structure.

(ii) Farmyard manure: Farmyard manure, also known as FYM, is organic manure that is obtained from decomposed animal waste, such as cow dung, along with plant residues. It is rich in nutrients and organic matter, making it beneficial for improving soil fertility, moisture retention, and overall soil health.

(iii) Compost: Compost is a type of organic manure that is produced through the decomposition of organic materials, such as kitchen waste, yard trimmings, and crop residues. It undergoes a controlled process of decomposition, resulting in a nutrient-rich material that can be used to enhance soil fertility, improve soil structure, and promote healthy plant growth.

(i) Advantages of mixed farming:
(i) Mixed farming allows farmers to grow a variety of crops and raise different types of livestock, reducing dependence on a single crop or livestock species.
(ii) By diversifying their farm activities, farmers can spread the risks associated with market fluctuations, climate variability, and disease outbreaks.
(iii) Mixed farming systems often involve the integration of crops and livestock, allowing for the efficient recycling of nutrients.

(ii) Disadvantages of mixed farming:
(i) Managing multiple crops and livestock species can be more challenging and require additional knowledge, skills, and resources.
(ii) Mixed farming systems may require more time and labor to manage compared to specialized farming systems.
(iii) Different crops and livestock products may have varying market demands and prices, making it more difficult to predict and optimize profitability.

Fishery regulations are rules and guidelines established by authorities to manage and regulate fishing activities in order to ensure sustainable fisheries, protect aquatic ecosystems, and maintain the balance of fish populations.

(i) Fishing quotas
(ii) Gear Restrictions
(iii) Closed seasons
(iv) Licensing and Registration


Area of the farmland
= 50m x 30m

Spacing of crop = 20cm x 30cm
= 0.2 x 0.3m
= 0.06m²

Number of crop = Area of Farmland/ Spacing

= 1500m²/0.06m²

Plant population= 25,000 crop stands.

(10/100) x 25000/1 = 2500


(i) Spacing of 60cm by 60cm is required
(ii) Done in well drained loamy soil
(iii) Planting is done early April

(i) Spacing of 25cm-30cm apart
(ii) Done in fertile water soaked soil
(iii) Seeds are down around May-June

(i) Facilitates the transport of nutrients to the foetus
(ii) Removed of waste products from the foetus
(iii) Immune protection of the foetus

(i) Salivary gland
(ii) Liver
(iii) Pancreas


Artificial insemination (AI) is a reproductive technique in animal husbandry and agriculture that involves the deliberate introduction of sperm into the reproductive tract of a female animal without natural mating. The goal of artificial insemination is to facilitate fertilization and achieve pregnancy. In this method, semen collected from a male animal with desired genetic traits is processed, evaluated, and then introduced into the female’s reproductive system at the most opportune time for conception. This technique allows for controlled breeding and the dissemination of superior genetic material to improve the overall quality of the herd or flock.

(i) Artificial insemination requires specialized equipment and trained personnel, making it a costly process to set up and maintain.
(ii) Proper implementation of artificial insemination demands a high level of skill and expertise.
(iii) There is a potential risk of transmitting diseases through artificial insemination if proper hygiene and sanitation practices are not maintained during the collection, processing, and insemination procedures.
(iv) The widespread use of artificial insemination with a focus on a limited number of superior males can lead to reduced genetic diversity within a population.
(v) Emotional and psychological stress can be associated with the process.

(i) Farmers
(ii) Ranchers
(iii) Agricultural cooperatives
(iv) Rural communities
(v) Agricultural students.

(i) Rivers
(ii) Lakes

(i) Hydration: Livestock need water to stay hydrated and maintain their overall health.
(ii) Digestion: Water is necessary for proper digestion and absorption of nutrients in livestock.
(iii) Temperature regulation: Water helps animals regulate their body temperature, especially in hot weather.
(iv) Cleaning and hygiene: Water is used for cleaning livestock facilities and maintaining good hygiene for the animals.


Agricultural insurance is a type of insurance that provides financial protection to farmers against losses or damages to their crops, livestock, or agricultural property due to unforeseen events like natural disasters or disease outbreaks.

(i) Limited access: Many farmers in West Africa do not have access to affordable agricultural insurance.
(ii) Lack of awareness: Farmers may not be aware of the benefits and availability of agricultural insurance.
(iii) Insufficient coverage: The coverage provided by agricultural insurance may not adequately compensate farmers for their losses.
(iv) Inaccurate assessment: Assessing the value of agricultural losses accurately can be challenging, leading to disputes and delays in claim settlements.
(v) Climate-related risks: Climate change and unpredictable weather patterns can make it difficult to accurately assess and manage risks in agricultural insurance.

(i) Increase in income of consumers:
An increase in the income of consumers generally leads to an increase in the demand for sweet potatoes. As consumers’ incomes rise, they may be more inclined to diversify their diets and incorporate nutritious foods like sweet potatoes. The higher purchasing power allows consumers to afford a wider range of food choices, positively influencing the demand for sweet potatoes.

(ii) High cost of farm inputs:
The high cost of farm inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, can negatively affect the supply of sweet potatoes. Farmers may reduce the quantity of sweet potatoes produced or choose alternative crops with lower input costs. This reduction in supply can lead to higher prices in the market, impacting both producers and consumers.

(i) Monoculture: Growing a single crop repeatedly in the same area can create an ideal environment for pests to thrive.
(ii) Lack of crop rotation: Not rotating crops can lead to a buildup of pests that specifically target certain crops.
(iii) Poor soil health: Nutrient-deficient soil can weaken plants, making them more susceptible to pests.
(iv) Lack of pest management practices: Not implementing effective pest control measures can leave crops vulnerable to infestation.

(i) Bacteria
(ii) Chemical Residues
(iii) Mycotoxins


COMPLETED….We Remain Your Favourite Site.
Ensure You Subscribe For Your Next


Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.