(i) Contentment: This has to do with satisfaction in whatever situation a person find himself. When a person is contented, the person is satisfied in the position he or she finds himself or herself.

(ii) Hard-work: When there is justice people will work hard because they will see the value of their hard work. The government would have done so much on its part when it acts justly. People will not be lazy.

(iii) Diligence: This is the act of skills display, care an putting of thorough effort in doing particular work by someone. The perso who is skillful is required to use his or h professional skill in doing the work. TI person will do the work reasonable as it required with some form of skill.

(iv) Selflessness: This has to do with so much sacrifice on the part of an individual or society. Selflessness is also a situation where a person gives up his luxury for the sake of another or other people. This is done without expecting reward or favour from any one or any member of the society. A selfless person helps people in a community with out asking for any reward. He/She has a leadership quality.

(v) Honesty: Honesty means not telling lies but truth all the time. An honest person is loved in the society and among people. An honest person can be trusted with money and position of authority without any suspicion. When an honest person is voted into position of power, the people are happy because they know that there will be good governance, but when dishonest people are in power wickedness will be rampant.

(i)Nationhood and identity: Citizenship education helps individuals develop a sense of national identity, fostering a shared understanding of values, history, and cultural heritage. It strengthens the bond between citizens and their nation.

(ii)Active citizenship: Civic education empowers individuals to actively participate in civic life, including community development projects, volunteer work, and public service. It encourages citizens to take ownership of their communities and contribute to their improvement.

(iii)Democratic governance: Citizenship education promotes an understanding of democratic principles, processes, and institutions. It equips individuals with knowledge about their rights and responsibilities as citizens, preparing them to engage in democratic decision-making and hold elected representatives accountable.

(iv)Social responsibility: Civic education instills a sense of social responsibility, emphasizing the importance of contributing positively to society. It encourages citizens to be aware of societal issues, such as poverty, inequality.

(v)Peaceful coexistence: Citizenship education promotes respect, understanding, and dialogue among individuals from different backgrounds. It equips citizens with skills to resolve conflicts peacefully.

Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions, connections, and bonds between different communities or ethnic groups within a specific geographical area. It involves the social, cultural, economic, and political interactions that occur among individuals, families, organizations, and institutions from different communities.

(i)Cultural Exchange and Diversity: Inter-communal relationships provide opportunities for cultural exchange and appreciation. When different communities interact, they share their customs, traditions, languages, arts, and values.

(ii)Peace and Conflict Resolution: Effective inter-communal relationships contribute to peaceful coexistence and conflict resolution. When communities establish open lines of communication and engage in dialogue, it becomes easier to address misunderstandings, resolve disputes.

(iii)Economic Collaboration: Inter-communal relationships can enhance economic development in Nigeria. Communities that collaborate and engage in trade, business partnerships, and resource sharing create economic opportunities and increase productivity.

(iv)Social Integration and Unity: Inter-communal relationships foster social integration and unity among diverse groups. When different communities interact positively, stereotypes and prejudices can be challenged and overcome.

(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.
(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.
(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.
(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.
(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people.
(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values.

(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government. It is responsible for implementing and executing laws, policies, and programs that govern the country. The President of Nigeria is the head of the executive branch, and the office is held by the individual elected through a national election. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals.

(i)Implementation of Laws: The executive branch is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws passed by the legislature.

(ii)Protection of Civil Liberties: The executive branch is responsible for safeguarding the civil liberties and rights of citizens.

(iii)Executive Leadership: The executive arm provides leadership and direction to the government.

(iv)Checks and Balances: The executive branch acts as a check and balance on other branches of government.

(v)International Relations: The executive arm represents the country in international affairs and diplomatic relations.

(vi)Crisis Management and National Security: The executive branch is responsible for managing crises and ensuring national security.

(vii)Accountability to the Legislature and the People: The executive branch is accountable to the legislature and ultimately to the people.

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