Food additives are substances that are added to food during processing or preparation to enhance the flavor texture appearance or shelf life of the food product. They may also be added to maintain or improve nutritional value.

– Preservatives: They help prevent spoilage and maintain the freshness of food.

– Flavor enhancers are additives that are used to enhance or intensify the natural flavors already present in a food product. They may add a specific taste or aroma to the food.

(i) Beef is derived from cattle while poultry refers to meat derived from domesticated birds such as chicken turkey duck or goose.

(ii) Beef has a rich and robust flavor often described as being more savory or earthy While Poultry on the other hand has a milder flavor and a tender moist texture when cooked properly.

(i) Regular hand washing
(ii) Cleaning and disinfecting kitchen surfaces


Bile – Bile plays a crucial role in digestion by emulsifying fats and breaking them down into smaller particles that can be easily absorbed by the body. It is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine.

Insulin – Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates glucose metabolism in the body by helping cells absorb sugar from the blood. It plays an important role in digestion by controlling the uptake and utilization of glucose by the body’s cells, which is essential for providing energy to the body.

(i)Both steaming and boiling use water as a cooking medium. In steaming, food is cooked by the hot steam generated from boiling water, while in boiling, food is cooked in hot water.

(ii)Both cooking methods are relatively quick and simple, and they are ideal for cooking vegetables, grains, and seafood. They are also healthy cooking methods that help preserve the nutritional value of the food being prepared.

A hostess is a woman who is responsible for receiving and entertaining guests in her home or at a social event. She is responsible for ensuring that her guests are comfortable, have access to refreshments, and are enjoying themselves.


Entertainment refers to any form of activity, performance, or presentation that is designed to amuse, entertain, or provide enjoyment to an audience. It can include various forms such as movies, music, theater, sports, games, books, art, and recreational activities.

Food budgeting refers to the process of planning and managing expenses related to food consumption within a specified budget. It involves allocating a certain amount of money for purchasing food items and making decisions on how to spend that budget wisely.

Pasteurization is a process that involves heating a liquid, typically food or beverages, to a specific temperature and then rapidly cooling it to destroy or inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. It helps reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses by making the food or beverage safer for consumption while preserving its quality and nutritional value.

(i) Under nutrition refers to a lack of adequate nutrients and calories in the diet leading to malnourishment and deficiencies in the body. Over nutrition on the other hand refers to excessive consumption of nutrients and calories often leading to obesity and related health issues.

(ii) Under nutrition is commonly associated with poverty limited access to nutritious food and inadequate intake of essential nutrients like proteins vitamins and minerals While Over nutrition on the other hand is commonly associated with excessive consumption of processed and high-calorie foods sedentary lifestyles and overeating.


Consumer education refers to the process of equipping individuals with the knowledge, skills, and information necessary to make informed decisions as consumers. It aims to empower consumers and enable them to understand their rights and responsibilities, as well as make wise choices in the marketplace.

(i) Empowers consumers: Consumer education empowers individuals by providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills to navigate the marketplace confidently.

(ii) Protects consumer rights: It helps consumers understand their legal rights, such as the right to safety, right to information, right to choose, and right to redress

(iii) Promotes financial literacy: It helps consumers understand their legal rights, such as the right to safety, right to information, right to choose, and right to redress.

(iv) Fosters a fair marketplace: By promoting consumer awareness and knowledge, consumer education contributes to the development of a fair and competitive marketplace.

(i) All-purpose flour
(ii) Sugar
(iii) Yeast
(iv) Milk or water
(v) Eggs
(vi) Butter or vegetable oil
(vii) Salt
(viii) Vanilla extract
(ix) Nutmeg or cinnamon

(i) Sprinkles
(ii) Shredded coconut


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