A data model is a conceptual representation of the structure, relationships, constraints, and rules governing the storage and organization of data in a database or information system. It defines how data is stored, processed, accessed, and manipulated within the system.

(i) In a spreadsheet package, a worksheet is a single sheet or tab within a workbook where you can input, organize, analyze, and visualize data. It is the basic working unit and can contain rows, columns, and cells WHILE A workbook is a collection of multiple worksheets. It acts as the container that holds all the individual worksheets or sheets. You can create, save, and open workbooks, and each workbook can have its own set of worksheets.

(ii) In a spreadsheet, a cell is the intersection point of a row and a column. It represents the smallest unit of data in a worksheet. You can input text, numbers, formulas, or functions into a cell. Each cell has a unique address, which is represented by its column letter and row number (e.g., A1, B3, C10) WHILE Active Cell is the currently selected cell in a worksheet. It is the cell that is ready to receive input or where actions like copying, pasting, or formatting will take effect. When you click on a cell, it becomes the active cell, and its address is displayed in the cell reference box or name box.

(i) Bookmark:
A bookmark, in the context of websites, refers to a saved link to a specific webpage or website that allows users to quickly access that page without having to remember or type the entire URL each time. Bookmarks are often referred to as “favorites” in some web browsers. When you bookmark a webpage, the browser stores the URL and associated information, enabling you to revisit that page with just a click from your bookmarks/favorites menu. Bookmarks help users keep track of their preferred websites or pages and organize them for easy access.

(ii) Bitmap:
In the context of websites, a bitmap is an image file format that represents graphics or pictures using a grid of individual pixels. Each pixel is assigned a specific color, and these pixels collectively form the image. Bitmap images are resolution-dependent, meaning they have a fixed number of pixels per inch or centimeter, which affects their visual quality. Common bitmap file formats include JPEG, PNG, BMP, and GIF. Bitmap images are widely used for photographs and complex graphics but may result in larger file sizes compared to other image formats like vector graphics.

A primary key is a unique and non-null field or combination of fields within a database table. Its primary purpose is to uniquely identify each record in the table. The primary key enforces data integrity by ensuring that no two records have the same key value, and it serves as a reference for linking data between different tables in a relational database.

(i) Internet Service Provider (ISP):
An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company or organization that provides users with access to the internet. ISPs offer various services, such as internet connectivity, email accounts, web hosting, and sometimes additional services like virtual private networks (VPNs) or cloud storage. ISPs connect their customers to the broader internet infrastructure, enabling them to access websites, send emails, and engage in online activities.

(ii) Network Administrator:
A network administrator is a professional responsible for managing and maintaining an organization’s computer networks. Their role involves configuring, monitoring, and troubleshooting network infrastructure to ensure its smooth and secure operation. Network administrators handle tasks such as setting up network hardware, implementing security measures, managing user accounts, and resolving network-related issues.

(i) Ctrl + A:
This keyboard combination is used to select all the content in the current document or text area. When you press Ctrl + A, it highlights and selects the entire text, allowing you to perform various actions on the selected content, such as copying, cutting, formatting, or deleting it.

(ii) Alt + Shift + Tab:
In MS-Word, this keyboard combination is used to move the cursor to the previous tab or window. It is particularly helpful when you have multiple documents or applications open and want to switch between them quickly.

(iii) Alt + F4:
Pressing Alt + F4 is a common keyboard shortcut to close the currently active window or application, including MS-Word. If you have multiple documents open in Word, it will close the one that is currently in focus.

(iv) Shift + E:
In MS-Word, pressing Shift + E does not have a specific function or predefined action. The Shift key is typically used to capitalize letters, but when combined with the letter “E,” it does not trigger any special functionality in the application.

(i) A parallel database is a type of database management system that spreads and processes data across multiple computing nodes or servers simultaneously. The main goal of a parallel database is to improve performance and scalability by distributing the workload among multiple processing units.

(ii) A distributed database is a database system in which the data is distributed across multiple locations or sites, often in different geographical locations. Each site in the distributed database may contain its own database management system to handle local operations, and there is a mechanism in place to coordinate and manage data across these sites.

(i) Keynote
(ii) Microsoft PowerPoint

(i) Data Storage and Retrieval: DBMS enables efficient storage and retrieval of large volumes of data, allowing users to access and manipulate information in a structured and organized manner.

(ii) Data Security and Integrity: DBMS provides mechanisms to enforce data security and integrity constraints, ensuring that only authorized users can access and modify data while maintaining data accuracy and consistency.

(iii) Data Analysis and Reporting: DBMS allows users to run complex queries, generate reports, and perform data analysis, enabling organizations to make informed decisions based on the data stored in the database.

(i) Keyboard
(ii) Touchscreen
(iii) Scanner
(iv) Mouse

An operating system (OS) is a software program that acts as an intermediary between the computer hardware and the user. It manages the hardware resources, provides services for computer programs, and enables users to interact with the computer. The primary functions of an operating system include managing memory, file systems, input/output devices, and executing applications.

(i) Microsoft Office Suite
(ii) Google Workspace
(iii) GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
(iv) Autodesk AutoCAD



(i) Improved Performance: Distributed databases can enhance query processing and data access by allowing data to be located closer to the users or applications, reducing latency and improving response times.
(ii) Increased Scalability: Distributed databases can handle large amounts of data and a higher number of users by distributing the data across multiple servers, thus increasing the system’s capacity.

(i) Complexity: Setting up and managing a distributed database system is more complex than managing a centralized database due to issues like data fragmentation, replication, and consistency maintenance.
(ii) Data Security and Integrity: Ensuring data security and maintaining data integrity become more challenging in a distributed environment as data is spread across multiple locations, making it susceptible to security breaches and data inconsistencies.

(i) File Infector Virus: This type of virus attaches itself to executable files and spreads when the infected file is executed. It can infect various types of files, including .exe and .dll files.

(ii) Macro Virus: Macro viruses are commonly found in documents like Microsoft Word or Excel. They infect the files’ macros and execute when the infected document is opened, often spreading to other documents and files on the system.

Normal form refers to a systematic process of organizing and structuring relational database tables to minimize redundancy and dependency issues. There are several levels of normal forms, including First Normal Form (1NF), Second Normal Form (2NF), Third Normal Form (3NF), and so on. Each higher level of normal form represents a more refined and normalized structure that reduces data duplication and maintains data integrity.

(i) Adobe Photoshop
(ii) CorelDRAW
(iii) GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
(iv) Autodesk SketchBook

(i) Education: ICT has revolutionized the educational landscape by facilitating e-learning, online courses, digital textbooks, and interactive learning tools. It allows students and educators to access information from anywhere, promoting lifelong learning.

(ii) Health Care: ICT is used in healthcare for electronic health records (EHRs), telemedicine, remote patient monitoring, and medical research. It has improved the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare services.

(i) A file is a unit of data storage that holds information, such as text, images, or code. Files are created to store specific data or content WHILE A folder (also known as a directory) is a container that holds multiple files and subfolders. Its purpose is to organize and group related files together for easier management.

(ii) Files are individual data entities with specific content and may be stored in folders for organization WHILE Folders create a hierarchical structure that can contain multiple files and subfolders, allowing for a more organized arrangement of data and files.


COMPLETED….We Remain Your Favourite Site.
Ensure You Subscribe For Your Next


Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.