Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of voltages in any closed loop or mesh within an electrical circuit is equal to zero.

Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of currents entering and exiting a node or junction within an electrical circuit is equal to zero.

Resistance (R₁) = 20Ω
Resistance (R₂) = 30Ω
Resistance (R₃) = 40Ω
V = 100V

(i) Parallel Connection:
1/Rp = 1/R₁ + 1/R₂ + 1/R₃
1/Rp = 1/20 + 1/30 + 1/40
Rp = 1/(1/20 + 1/30 + 1/40)
Rp = 8.57Ω.
Current (I) in the circuit:
I = V/Rp
I = 100/8.57
I = 11.65A

(ii) Series Connection:
Rs = R₁ + R₂ + R₃
Rs = 20 + 30 + 40
Rs = 90Ω
Current (I) in the circuit:
I = V/Rs
I = 100/90
I = 1.11A

(i) Single Path for Current
(ii) Same Current Through Components
(iii) Voltage Adds up

(i) Multiple Paths for Current
(ii) Different Currents Through Components
(iii) Same Voltage Across Components

Capacitor (C₁) = 20μF
Capacitor (C₂) = 40μF
Capacitor (C₃) = 50μF

(i) Series:
1/Cs = 1/C₁ + 1/C₂ + 1/C₃
1/Cs = 1/20 + 1/40 + 1/50
1/Cs = 0.05 + 0.025 + 0.02
1/Cs = 0.095
Cs = 1/0.095
Cs = 10.53μF

(ii) Parallel:
Cp = C₁ + C₂ + C₃
Cp = 20 + 40 + 50
Cp = 110μF

If the 40μF capacitor is burned:
(i) In series: The total capacitance will change.
(ii) In parallel: The total capacitance will remain the same as the other capacitors will not be affected.

Internal resistance refers to the inherent resistance within a device or component, typically an electrical circuit or a battery. It is caused by the opposition encountered by the flow of electric current within the device.

(i) Low or zero voltage reading: A fully discharged secondary cell will show a very low or zero voltage reading when measured using a voltmeter.

(ii) Inability to deliver power: A fully discharged cell will be unable to deliver power to a device or system. It may not be able to start or operate any electrical equipment.

(iii) Diminished capacity: The cell may have a significantly reduced energy storage capacity compared to its fully charged state. It may not be able to hold a charge for a long duration or provide sufficient power.

(iv) Low specific gravity: In lead-acid batteries, a fully discharged cell will have a low specific gravity reading when tested using a hydrometer.

(v) Slow or no chemical reaction: The chemical reactions within the cell will be slow or non-existent, leading to a lack of energy generation.

Draw the diagram


Soldering is a process of joining two or more metal objects together by melting a filler metal called solder and applying it to the joint.

(i) Prepare the soldering iron: Ensure that the soldering iron is clean and properly heated. Use a wet sponge or brass tip cleaner to clean the tip and ensure it is tinned.

(ii) Clean the components: Make sure the surfaces to be soldered are free from dirt, grease, or any other contaminants. Use isopropyl alcohol or a specialized electronics cleaner if necessary.

(iii) Apply flux: Apply a small amount of flux to both the component leads and the pads on the circuit board. Flux helps improve solder flow and prevents oxidation during the soldering process.

(iv) Heat the joint: Use the soldering iron to heat the component lead and the pad simultaneously. Ensure that both are heated properly to allow the solder to flow smoothly.

(v) Apply solder: Once the joint is heated, touch the solder wire to the joint, not the soldering iron. The heat from the joint will melt the solder, allowing it to flow and create a strong connection.

(vi) Remove the soldering iron: Once the solder has flowed and created a good joint, remove the soldering iron and hold the joint still until the solder solidifies. Avoid moving the joint while it is cooling.

(vii) Inspect the joint: After the joint has cooled, visually inspect it for any signs of irregularities, such as cold solder joints or bridges.

(viii) Clean the joint: If necessary, you can clean the solder joint with isopropyl alcohol or a specialized flux remover to remove any flux residue.

(i) Removing oxidation: Flux helps to remove any oxidation present on the metal surfaces being soldered. This is crucial because oxidation can hinder the formation of a strong bond between the solder and the metal.

(ii) Cleaning the surfaces: Flux cleans contaminants like dirt, grease, or residues that may be present on the surfaces to be soldered. This ensures better wetting and spreading of the solder, resulting in a stronger joint.

(iii) Promoting solder flow: Flux improves the flow of solder by reducing surface tension, allowing the solder to move smoothly and properly wet the surfaces being joined. This ensures that the solder fills the joint completely, forming a strong and reliable connection.

(iv) Preventing re-oxidation: Flux also helps to prevent re-oxidation during the soldering process. It forms a protective barrier between the hot metal surfaces and the surrounding air, preventing the reformation of oxide layers while the soldering is taking place.

(v) Assisting heat transfer: Flux aids in the efficient transfer of heat during the soldering process. It absorbs and distributes heat evenly, helping to ensure that the solder melts at the correct temperature, allowing for proper soldering without overheating the components.


(i) Soldered Joint: Used in circuit boards, electronic components, and small electrical connections.

(ii) Crimped Joint: Commonly used in automobile wiring, electrical connectors, and control panels.

(iii) Bolted Joint: Used in electrical panels, industrial machinery, and heavy-duty electrical connections.

(iv) Compression Joint: Found in power transmission lines, substations, and high voltage connections.

(v) Welded Joint: Used in electrical enclosures, structural connections, and grounding systems.

(vi) Insulated Joint: Found in underground cables, distribution lines, and cable splices.

(vii) Screwed Joint: Commonly used in household wiring, electrical switches, and outlets.

(viii) Twist-On Wire Connector: Used in residential wiring, lighting fixtures, and junction boxes.

(ix) Wire Terminal: Found in automotive wiring, electrical appliances, and control systems.

(x) Mechanical Connector: Commonly used in power distribution systems, electrical grids, and industrial machinery installations.

Draw the diagram

The Britannian joints are made through a process called welding. Welding involves the fusion of two or more pieces of metal using heat and pressure. The process can be done through various methods such as arc welding, gas welding, or resistance welding, depending on the specific requirements of the joint. These methods involve creating an electric arc or flame that melts the edges of the metals, which are then fused together to form a strong joint. The welding process requires skilled operators and adherence to safety protocols to ensure the quality and integrity of the joints.


COMPLETED….We Remain Your Favourite Site.
Ensure You Subscribe For Your Next


Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.